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Cremation (Lesson 4-8)
DMACC Mortuary Science Program 2021
Terms in this set (97)
What medical devices need to be removed prior to cremation?
According to the instructor notes, should the cremation container be opened at the crematory without the funeral director present?
No, the funeral directors should verify with the crematory that the container will not be opened without the funeral director present since the funeral director is the representative of the family
What material is often used for the metal identification discs of cremation?
Stainless Steel or Titanium
What must be on the metal discs that are inserted into the crematory prior to cremation?
A non-repeating number that is assigned to each decedent
Which burner is used to preheat the crematory?
Why do you preheat the crematory prior to cremation?
To ensure that the temperature in the secondary chamber is high enough to combust the gases and particulates released from the primary chamber
What is placed into the crematory primary chamber to facilitate the loading of the deceased?
Cardboard cylinder AKA Roller
Which portion of the deceased (head or feet) should be loaded into the primary chamber first during a normal (non-obese) cremation?
Feet First (Non Obese)
Following the removal of the cremated remains (Bone fragments) from the primary chamber, what is removed from the cremated remains?
Any metal that may have remained after the cremation process (remove with magnet)
What unit is utilized to reduce the bone fragments down to a fine sand-like powder?
What should be done if the cremated remains will not fit into 1 urn?
Operator will use 2 containers and give both to family
The secondary burner of a retort which facilitate additional combustion of the unburned combustible material that left the primary chamber
The secondary chamber of a retort where unburned combustible materials from the primary chamber collects for further combustion
A device used to introduce flame to the primary chamber of a retort; may be referred to as the primary burner
Chemical reaction that results from mixing fuel and oxygen in the presence of an ignition source and releases light and heat.
An environmentally safe casket which is designed for encasing dead human remains for cremation
The case / container in which the human body is delivered to the crematory and in which the body is cremated
A furnace or retort for cremating dead human bodies; a building that houses a retort
Combustion products such as smoke, soot, sulfur dioxide, etc.
A horizontal passage for conducting products of combustion into the atmosphere
A solid surface upon which the human remains and container are placed for the cremation process
The degree to which a substance allows light to pass through
Small pieces of liquids or solids that include dust, fumes, smoke, mists or sprays that are products of incinerated matter
Chemical compounds (gaseous or particulate matter) in combustion / flue gases that present human health and environmental concerns
Chamber within a retort where primary ignition and burning of human remains occurs
Primary Combustion Chamber
The process of reducing the size of cremated remains after or as a secondary step of cremation
Special high temperature lining of the combustion chambers
The burning chamber in a crematory
Chamber where unburned combustible materials from the primary chamber are completely burned
Secondary Combustion Container
A chamber designed to reduce the velocity of the products of combustion to promote the settling of fly ash to allow for further combustion or to inhibit escape from the stack
Setting or Expansion Chamber
A vertical passage for conducting products of combustion into the atmosphere
What temperature should the crematory have when cremating an obese deceased?
1400-1600 degrees DO NOT reach 2000 degrees
How should an obese case be loaded into the crematory - head first or feet first?
Head First! (Obese)
What clearance should an obese have between the container and the refractory?
1 inch clearance on top and sides of the primary chamber between the refractory and the cremation container
What may happen if the secondary chamber has too high of a temperature?
It could cause the gases and particulates to evacuate through the stack more quickly causing a visible emission from the stack
What special consideration relative to the primary chamber is given to the cremation process of an infant?
The infant should be placed in a special infant pan alone close to the primary burner
What relative temperature should be used to cremate an infant?
Should utilize the heated crematory after a deceased person has been cremated
Why is ambient heat (heat that builds up from other cremations) used for an infant cremation?
The intense heat could dissipate the cremated remains leaving nothing, because the babies are so tiny that normal burners and blowers would dissipate the cremated remains of the infant so ideally you would want to use a gentle heat for them
How should infant pulverization be accomplished?
By hand rather than in the processor
What could happen if plastics are utilized regularly in cremation containers?
Highly flammable!! could produce higher temperatures producing visible emissions from the stack
Plastic will be liquefied during the cremation process and could bond to the hearth of the primary chamber
Incineration of plastic can also violate EPA regulations
The term defined by an environmentally safe casket which is designed for encasing dead human remains for cremation?
The term defined by a casket which is used as a temporary receptacle for the dead human remains for the purpose of visitation and funeral with the intention that the remains will be placed in some other suitable container for permanent disposition while the casket is intended to be reused
The term defined by a structure composed of cardboard and interior fabric which is designed to be removed from the rental casket after each use.
Rental Casket Intsert (s)
The term defined by an unfinished wood box or other non-metal receptacle or enclosure, without ornamentation or a fixed interior lining, which is designed for the encasement of human remains and which is made of fiberboard, pressed-wood, composition materials (with or without an outside covering) or like materials.
What are the four qualities you look for in a cremation container?
1. Be composed of a combustible material
2. Be rigid to allow for ease of handling
3. Protects the operator
4. Provides respect by covering the deceased
What caution should be considered with a high polished casket finish?
*Cremate early in the day when the crematory is coolest
*The lacquer on the casket could combust during the loading process
*Also could produce visual emission
*Lacquer could produce its own fuel so the primary burner may need to be turned off to prevent overheating
When should high polished caskets be cremated - first cremation of the day or later in the day?
First Cremation of the Day
What considerations are made for cremating metal caskets?
Remove the casket lid so the primary burner can penetrate the casket and allow the cremation process
The term defined by a container for cremated remains
How is an artificial coral reef created out of cremated remains?
By mixing a portion of the cremated remains with liquid concrete and when it solidifies it is then placed into the ocean as a reef
What are the small urns that can hold a port of the cremated remains?
Keep Sake Urns
What container is most commonly used to transport cremated remains from the crematory?
The term defined by a container which is utilized to hold cremated remains for easy transport when the authorizing person has not selected the final container to hold the cremated remains
The term defined by the act of placing cremated remains in an urn
How does CANA (Cremation Association of North America) define Inurnment?
The act of placing cremated remains in a niche or grave
The term defined by the act of placing an urn into a niche
The term defined by a structure for the encasement of an urn in the ground
The term defined by an above ground structure or building containing crypts or vaults for entombment of caskets; which may also include niches for cremated remains
The term defined by the placing of remains in a crypt in a mausoleum
The term defined by a structure, room or space in a mausoleum or other building containing niches or recesses used to hold cremated remains
The term defined by a chamber in a mausoleum, of sufficient size, generally used to contain the casketed remains of a deceased person
The term defined by a recess or space in a columbarium used for the permanent placing of cremated remains
The term defined by a mausoleum which has an area large enough to conduct a service and generally has the crypt or niche opening to the interior of the building
The term defined by a mausoleum which contains crypts or niches which open to the exterior of the building, does not contain an area for services in the interior of the building and may be in a park-like setting
The term defined by a mausoleum which is usually smaller in size than a public mausoleum and which only contains the remains of the building's owner
Private (Family) Mausoleum
The term defined by the act of simply tossing the ashes to the wind. Usually done by one individual while others look on
The term defined by the act of placing cremated remains into a shallow trench or groove in the soil
The term defined by the act of scattering cremated remains in a ring around an object such as a tree, shrub, or statue
The term defined by the act of placing cremated remains on the ground and then mixing them into the soil, generally with a rake
The term defined by the act of dispersing cremated remains from an urn or other similar container
The term defined by the act of scattering cremated remains from an airplane
The term defined by the act of scattering cremated remains over water
The term defined by a section in a cemetery set aside for the scattering of cremated human remains
The term defined by an urn designed specifically for dispersing of the cremated remains it contains
The term defined by a structure used to transport an urn of cremated remains in a ceremonial fashion to a final resting place
The term defined by those cremated remains which are left indefinitely by the family at the funeral home or crematory
Unclaimed Cremated Remains
What are the six types of scattering Cremated Remains?
What does Kubasak list as the major liability issues with retaining unclaimed cremated remains?
*Misidentification that could occur over time-loss or misplacement
*The destruction of your FH or storage facility from natural disaster
*Denial of insurance claims. (without receiving confirmation in writing from your property-casualty insurance carrier, do not assume that your preset insurance policy provides coverage from storing unclaimed cremated remains at the FH, crematory or off-premises storage facility).
According to Kubasak why do people fail to claim the cremated remains of their loved ones?
*Arranger does not make a decision of what to do with the cremated remains
*They believe that after they choose cremation, no other decisions need to be made.
*Some are unaware of options for disposition-psychologically and emotionally the person's cremated remains are merely viewed as ashes and a nuisance
*Families are separated geographically, socially, emotionally and culturally-people live longer with growing generational gaps and may not know one another or the deceased
*More people live away from their place of birth and orgin and make funeral arrangements at distance
*The arranging party might be waiting for someone else to die such as a spouse so that disposition can occur at the same time.
*Some families are split over arrangements to be made or personal issues
*Some people just cannot decide
*Some people are angry at the deceased person for causing them further concern and inconvenience even after death.
What does Kubasak state are the seven best practices to take to avoid having unclaimed cremated remains?
1. Develop a written policy
2. Share the policy with all arrangers
3. Insist that the arranger be assertive, not passive in discussing the issue
4. Require that arrangements for disposition be decided upon and identified in writing
5. As a part of the cremation authorization form, include a section called "disposition of cremated remains
6. in boldfaced type include key parts of your policy on the cremation authorization form
7. Consider implementing a financial incentive associated to your policy
What three steps does the instructor suggest as ways to avoid cremated remains being left with the funeral provider?
1. NEVER call them ashes!
2. Have a ceremony
3. Schedule the disposition and publish it in the newspaper
Why should cremated remains never be referred to as ashes?
It de-humanize the cremated remains, once they are de-humanized its not hard to leave them behind
What is the only approved method for shipping cremated remains?
Registered Mail by the US Postal Service
List the state in which you intend to practice and the number of days the funeral practitioner must wait prior to disposing of the unclaimed cremated remains
Iowa- 60 days
The term defined by the attention reasonably expected from, and ordinarily exercised by, a person who seeks to satisfy a legal requirement or to discharge an obligation
According to Kubasak, what are the 7 reasons crematories do not hold high standards of conduct relative to cremation?
1. Cremation is viewed as only a business activity
2. There is no relationship or attachment to the deceased person or client family
3. Cremation is performed by the seat of the pants
4. With costs rising and profits declining, operators are instructed to lower costs
5. It is difficult to recruit high quality personnel
6. Lack of oversight or supervision by management
7. Lack of unaccounted inspections by local funeral homes
According to Kubasak, what are six common excuses funeral directors give for not inspecting crematories?
1. I have never done one before
.2. I've been in business for 40 years and never had to do one before
3. It's just like snooping
4. Crematory inspections are the responsibility of the authorities
5. I already have enough to do and quote frankly cremation does not generate enough revenue to deserve any more of my time
6. If I detect something wrong, I don't know what I should do
According to Kubasak, what are the key attributes to conducting crematory inspections?
5. Not performed by the same person every time
According to NFDA, what are the six essential elements/areas of an internal review of due diligence of cremation procedures?
1. Cremation Authorization Forms
2. Identification Process
4. Handling Cremated Remains
5. Insurance Review
6. Due Diligence File
What are the three elements of a external Due Diligence Process
1. Records request
2. Crematory interview
3. Crematory inspection
According to NFDA, how often should crematory records be reviewed as part of the Due Diligence of a funeral home?
At least annually!!
(once a year)
What is alkaline hydrolysis?
A water-based chemical process which uses a strong alkali often lye in water, 300-350 degrees and the pressure transforms the body into bone and a thick sludge, which is composed of the soft tissue that have been broken down
What are the two end products of Alkaline Hydrolysis?
Bones and a thick sludge
What temperature is needed for alkaline hydrolysis to be accomplished?
What must be done with the bones following alkaline hydrolysis and prior to the processing?
The bones are dried for days/ weeks and then pulverized like cremation
What are the three areas of standards by the Green Burial Council?
Funeral Home standards
Alkaline Hydrolysis is only legal in:
18 US States!!!!
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