LGS 5.5M Lipids: Transport, Deposition & Dietary Importance *not finished*

Hypertension, diabetes, elevated total cholesterol and triglycerides, obesity
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To increase the shelf lifeWhy are oils hydrogenated?Palm kernel oil is from the white center, and palm oil is from the outer red/orange pulpWhat is the difference between palm kernel oil and palm oil?Growth hormoneWhat do dairy products contain?They contain probioticsWhy can fermented dairy products be beneficial?1. Raise LDL cholesterol 2. Link to cardiovascular disease less certainWhat are the health effects of saturated long-chain fats?1. Partially-hydrogenated vegetable oil (~ 80% of trans fats in US diet) 2. Small amounts in grass-fed beef and dairy (conjugated linoleic acids/CLA)What are sources of trans fats?1. Increases total cholesterol; lowers HDL-C 2. Increases risk of heart diseaseWhat are the health effects of trans fats?1. Unsaturated: Polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids 2. Saturated: Medium-chain triglyceridesWhat types of fat are in vegetables, fish and coconut oil?They cannot be synthesized by the body de novoWhy are polyunsaturated fats essential?1. Incorporated into phospholipid bilayer of cell membranes, adding flexibility 2. Precursor for eicosanoids (prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxane, etc.)What are the physiologic functions of polyunsaturated fats?Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) Salmon, mackerel, anchovies, sardines herring (SMASH) Chia seeds, flaxseeds, walnutsWhat fat comes from the ocean and what are examples of foods that this type of fat is in?Used mostly for energy, but the body can convert a small amount into EPA and DHA; plant-basedWhat is the role of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and where is it from?Important hormone (eicosanoid precursor); marine-basedWhat is the role of eicosa pentaenoic acid (EPA) and where is it from?Important for nerve and retina function; marine-basedWhat is the role of docosa hexaenoic acid (HDA) and where is it from?1. Lower risk of all-cause mortality 2. Omega-3s lower risk of heart disease and type 2 diabetes (with ALA)What are the health effects of polyunsaturated omega-3 fats?1. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) 2. Eicosa pentaenoic acid (EPA) 3. Docosa hexaenoic acid (DHA)What are the three types of polyunsaturated omega-3 fats?Processed vegetables oils used in most fast foods, snack foods and sweets, including soybean oil, corn oil and safflower/sunflower oilWhat are the dietary sources of omega-6 fatty acids?Linoleic acidWhat is the most common dietary omega-6?Arachidonic acid precursor; skin impermeability; neuronal fat precursorWhat are the functions of omega-6 fats?1. Lower risk of all-cause mortality 2. Precursor to inflammatory eicosanoidsWhat are the health effects of omega-6 fats?Coconut oil, high-quality dairyWhat are healthy sources of saturated fats?Extra-virgin olive oil, nutsWhat are healthy sources of monounsaturated fats?Seeds (flax, chia), cold-water fishWhat are healthy sources of polyunsaturated fats?1. Cook with extra virgin olive oil (organ EVOO, if possible) 2. Add EVOO to meals (intact grains, beans, salad, veggies) 3. Snack on nuts or add to entrees 4. Add ground flax, hemp and/or chia seeds to yogurt or oatmeal 5. Add avocado or guacamole to meals 6. Add coconut oil to coffee 7. Add organic cheese from animals fed a healthy diet (high in omega-3s)What are ways to add healthy fats to the diet?Temperature at which oil starts to break downWhat is the smoke point?Because they've been stripped of "impurities" that cause the oil to smoke However, "impurities" include vitamins, phytonutrients and antioxidantsWhy do refined oils have higher smoke points?Avocado oil, ghee, almond oilWhat are some oil/fats that withstand higher temperature?How oil is extracted/processedWhat do smoke points depend on?Use high-quality oils and avoid cooking at high heatsWhat is the safest strategy to avoid the degradation of fat by heat/light in the presence of oxygen?C6-C12What is the carbon chain length for medium-chain triglycerides?C2-C5What is the carbon chain length for short-chain fatty acids?Coconut oil (> 50% of fat content) and dairy (10-20% of fat content)What are sources of medium-chain triglycerides?Microbiota (and tiny amounts in dairy)What are sources of short-chain fatty acids?CaproicWhat saturated fat has 6 carbons?CaprylicWhat saturated fat has 8 carbons?CapricWhat saturated fat has 10 carbons?LauricWhat saturated fat has 12 carbons?AcetateWhat saturated fat has 2 carbons?PropionateWhat saturated fat has 3 carbons?ButyrateWhat saturated fat has 4 carbons?ValerateWhat saturated fat has 5 carbons?Aid in weight lossWhat are the health effects of medium- and short-chain saturated fats?1. Synthesized in body as oleic acid 2. Major source of energy 3. Incorporated into cell membrane phospholipidsWhat are the physiologic functions of monounsaturated (omega-9) fats?1. Reduce LDL cholesterol 2. Lower risk of mortality and heart disease with olive oil and nutsWhat are the effects on health of monounsaturated (omega-9) fats?3% - inflammatory diet 6% - standard American diet 10% - needs improvement 20% - acceptable level 33% - healthy level 50% - optimal levelWhat percentage of omega-3 fatty acids are associated with different health outcomes?Omega 6 fatty acid (linoleic acid/processed vegetable oils) --> gamma-linolenic acid --> arachidonic acid --> prostaglandins (PG-2, inflammatory, via cyclooxygenase) or leukotrienes (LT-4, inflammatory, via lipoxygenase)Outline the omega 6 fatty acid pathway.Omega 3 fatty acids (alpha-linolenic acid/flax and chia seeds, walnuts) --> eicosapentaenoic acid (fish oil) --> prostaglandins (PG-1 and PG-3, less inflammatory, via COX) or leukotrienes (LT-5, less inflammatory, via LOX) --> docosahexaenoic acid (fish oil)Outline the omega 3 fatty acid pathway.