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Pregnant Mare & Foal Care (final)
Terms in this set (48)
What is routine care?
anything on a scheduled basis
What are the 4 routine care categories for pregnant mares?
parasite control, hoof care, dental care, vaccinations
When do we treat pregnant mares for parasites?
same schedule except avoid giving medications the first 60 days of pregnancy
- this is already a very stressful time
When do we do farrier care on pregnant mares?
very routinely except avoid during late gestation because very stiff
When do we do dental care on pregnant mares?
same schedule except avoid in early & late gestation because of sedation
- prefer to do in 2nd trimester when things are tranquil (fall)
In general, what is the rule with administering vaccinations to pregnant mares?
none during the 1st 60 days of pregnant (stressful)
- usually fine to give fall vaccines because already past 60 days
What vaccine is required for mares? Why?
Equine Herpes virus (EHV-1) + Pneumoabort-k +1b
- affects the blood supply & can cause abortion in the last 4 months of gestation
What is the Equine Herpes Virus (EHV-1) schedule for pregnant mares? Why?
5, 7, & 9 months of gestation
- immune response is very short
What is the difference between abortion and pre-term?
abortion - happens before baby is considered viable
pre-term - happens when baby is considered viable
When do we give the pre-foaling boosters (basically spring vaccinations)? Why?
30-45 days prior to foaling
- increase mare's antibodies against diseases so they get concentrated down to the colostrum for passive transfer
When do foals need colostrum? why?
within the first 12 hours
- antibodies do not cross through placenta
Risk based vs. core vaccine schedule in pregnant horses
- core vaccines & risk based
- risk based
What are the guidelines for exercise and pregnant mares?
allow for routine exercise
- want the mare to move around as freely as possible
- can be ridden though mid gestation
- not stressful to their body
What is the general housing guidelines for pregnant mares?
move to foaling locations last 30 days
Why do we want to move the mare to foaling locations in the last 30 days? (5)
- reduce stress on mare & foal (prevents complications)
- barn hands get used to horse's behavior
- get horse used to space
- mares will not foal if they are uncomfortable which causes fetal stress
- microbial population anywhere you go and want mother to create antibodies to maximize the foal's ability to fight them off
What are the core management tasks for pregnant mares?
- move to foaling locations last 30 days
- equine herpes virus (EHV-1) protection
- pre-foaling normal spring boosters
- prevent fescue toxicosis
Does a pregnant mares nutrition change?
routine for first 7 months then increases last 4 months
- do not require more nutrients or energy early on
Why do we increase nutrition in the last 4 months? What nutrients do we care about?
that is when the foal is growing a lot
- calories, protein, calcium
What do we want to prevent at all costs with pregnant mares nutrition?
What causes fescue toxicosis?
endophytes (fungus) infect the fescue and produced ergot alkaloids
What does the endophytes do?
cause the fescue to be extremely hardy
- resistance to drought and heat
What do the ergot alkaloids do?
acts on dopamine (agonist) to decrease prolactin levels
What is an agonist?
It is a drug that is capable of binding to, and activating, a receptor
What do decreased prolactin levels cause?
- agalactia (decreased milk)
- thickened placenta (less likely to rupture)
- prolonged gestation (fetus can no longer trigger mare for birth)
What does prolactin do?
stimulate milk production, udder developement, & thins placenta
What do fescue toxicosis foals look like?
oversized yet dysmature
- keep growing during that prolonged gestation
Why is there usually dystocia with fescue toxicosis?
thickened placenta & prolonged gestation causes larger foals
How do we prevent fescue toxicosis?
between last45-90 days of gestation: change the horses housing by pulling off of any grass, prevent them from eating hay with endophyte, feed fescue free fay
What is novel hay?
endophyte hay but does not produce ergot alkaloids
How do we treat fescue toxicosis? Any side effects?
treat with medication for 2 weeks that counteracts that effect
- horses do not form colostrum normally on this
Gestation length in horses
- 340 average meaning if you take all the horse and average their days it lands on 340
- not that the average horse foals on 340 (not a due date)
The longer the gestation, the _____ variable it is
Shorter gestation the ______ variable it is
less; basically can set money on the day they will give birth
- used interchangeable with maiden
How is a maiden or primiparous horse's gestation length different?
usually longer than those who have foaled before (multiparous)
(T/F) Horses do no have a specific pattern when it comes to parturition
false; will usually give birth around the same length which is why record keeping is important
start of foal care notes
you can do it!!!
What are the five categories for routine foal heath care?
- coggins test
When do we start deworming foals?
start around 2 months & then every 60 days (2 months) for the first year to target roundworms
When do we complete a coggin's test for foals? Is it required or suggested?
weaned or 6 months (whichever comes first)
- required by law
What is different about a foal's nutrition?
they do not develop a functioning cecum until 8 months
- feed milk till 4-6 months then grains & easily digested fibers
When do we wean foals?
around 4-6 months of age
what is the process of weaning a foal?
take off milk as primary diet & replace with grains & easily digested fiber
If we were to leave foals alone, when would they naturally wean? Why do we prevent this?
1 year of age
- mare loses a lot of weight & milk has lower nutrient value over time leading to decrease growth rates
When do we vaccinate foals? Why?
4-6 months (decline of peak antibodies)
- colostral antibodies stay in circulation until then
Why do we not give at peak colostral antibodies?
antibodies will attack what causes the immune response in vaccines causing them to be useless
When a foal gets their initial vaccine around 4-6 months, what is the next step?
we booster in 4-6 weeks after the original
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