In domestic violence situations the battery must be upon someone who meets the relationship requirement. Whether or not a warrant has been issued, a peace officer shall, unless mitigating circumstances exist, arrest a person when the peace officer has probable cause to believe that the person to be arrested has, within the preceding 24 hours, committed a battery upon his or her spouse, former spouse, any other person to whom he or she is related by blood or marriage, a person with whom he or she is or was actually residing, a person with whom he or she has had or is having a dating relationship, a person with whom he or she has a child in common, the minor child of any of those persons or his or her minor child or a child for which he or she is the custodian or guardian. Photographs should be taken as soon as possible, to depict the scene as it is observed before anything is handled, moved, or initiated into the scene.
The photographs allow a visual permanent record of the crime scene and items of evidence collected from the crime scene.
There are three positions or views that the crime scene investigator needs to achieve with the photographs. Those views consist of overall scene photographs showing the most view possible of the scene, mid-range photographs showing the relationships of items and a close up of the item of evidence.
A close up should be taken of items that have serial numbers, tags and vin numbers.
All stationary evidence where the photograph will be used to assist in the analytical process should be taken using a tripod with the proper lighting techniques for creating any needed shadows. A second photograph adding a measuring device should be taken of items where the photo will assist in the analytical process.
1. Photograph entire area before it is entered.
2. Photograph victims, crowd, and vehicles.
3. Photograph entire scene with overall, medium and close-up coverage, using measurement scale when appropriate.
4. Photograph major evidence items before they are moved; coordinate this effort with Sketch Preparer, Evidence Recorder, and Evidence Recovery Personnel.
5. Photograph all latent fingerprints and other impression evidence before lifting and casting are accomplished.
6.Prepare photographic log and crime scene diagram.
Body fluids found at a crime scene might include blood, semen, saliva, and vomit. To identify and collect these pieces of evidence, an officer should use smear slides, a scalpel, tweezers, scissors, sterile cloth squares, a UV light, protective eyewear and luminol. He'll also use a blood collection kit to get samples from any suspects or from a living victim to use for comparison. When patrol officers arrive at a crime scene, they have the most influence and control over the identification and preservation of all evidence related to a criminal action.
An effective patrol officer should always carry basic crime scene response equipment, including yellow crime scene tape for marking a scene. You also need basic evidence markers and a camera, and it is recommend carrying an assortment of boxes or other items that can be used to protect perishable evidence if weather conditions threaten the evidence.
When taping off a scene, it's a good idea to make it larger than you think it needs to be. Many times it's not until later that evidence is located nearby. A weapon, footwear or tire impressions, and blood can often be found some distance away from the primary scene.
The most important components of patrol crime scene response are observation and report-writing.
Patrol officers should also note specific times, including arrival time, the time the scene was secured, the time medical personnel entered, the time the victim was removed, and other key events at the crime scene.
Your notes serve to help you remember the details of that specific case. You must have a command of the facts of the case, what you wrote in your reports, witness statements and any other pertinent information to your case. This is not to say you should memorize verbatim facts like license plate numbers and quotes for the victim or the defendant. Doing so makes it look like you rehearsed this ahead of time, thus causing a "phony" aurora to your testimony. If somebody asks you to quote something, for example, something the defendant might have said, there is nothing wrong with asking to look at your report so the jurors know they're getting exactly what was said and not a best recollection.
If you have given testimony in the case previously at, for example, a preliminary hearing or suppression hearing, you should obtain a copy of the transcript form the prosecutor and read it over carefully. This serves two purposes: It will help refresh your memory, and you may see something that was incorrect. If so, you should be sure to tell the prosecutor so that jurors will hear about the mistake from the prosecution, not the defense.
Dress for your court appearance with the same attention to detail you would in going before a promotion board. You should be exceptionally neat—fingernails clean, hair trimmed, clothes pressed, shoes shined.
Don't demonstrate anger toward the defense attorney.
Always remain calm and respectful.
Your patience and temper will be sorely tried with interruptions, delays, argumentative questions and attacks on your character. Do not allow yourself to become arrogant, flip, antagonistic, impatient or excited. The worse it gets, the greater an opportunity you are being handed to impress the jury with your strength of character, your integrity, your dignity.
Defense attorneys often try to undermine an officer's credibility by pointing to differences between his testimony in court and something he wrote in his report.
If there was an error in the police report, admit it.
Did you talk to the DA?"
Some defense attorneys routinely ask officers if they talked to the prosecutor or other officers before testifying in court. They usually do this to suggest that the officer was coached by the prosecutor, or that he met with other officers to "get their stories straight." Again, the thing to remember is, don't get defensive. There is nothing wrong with talking to prosecutors and other officers about a case. So if the answer is yes, say so—and do not feel compelled to offer any explanations or excuses.
An attorney might try to cause an officer to give an inconsistent answer by asking the same question several times with minor changes. According to an inspector, "Some attorneys will ask a question three or four times. Essentially when it's the same question but there's a little change in the language. They're trying to get a 'yes' answer to a question which was previously answered 'no.'"
An attorney might ask a series of questions which, for one reason or another, the officer cannot answer. In these situations, officers should try to avoid giving the same response to each question. For example, an officer who immediately responds "I don't recall" or "I don't remember" to a series of questions may be viewed as being evasive or uncooperative. Instead, officers should give each question some thought and try to respond as directly as possible. For example, instead of saying "I don't recall," they might say "I wasn't looking at that."
Summarizing Previous Testimony
Officers should be alert when a defense attorney asks a question that begins with a summary of their previous testimony; e.g., "Earlier you testified that . . ." The danger is that the attorney may deliberately or negligently misstate the officer's earlier testimony. If so, and if the officer answers the attorney's question, it may appear that he agrees with the attorney's summary. A defense attorney will sometimes paraphrase what the officer said earlier, but it's somewhat incorrect.
Male < 45
Loner, usually quiet, with defiant outbursts, emotionally unstable
History of violence
Elevated frustration level
Pathological blamer or complainer
Strained work relationships
Changes in Health or hygiene
Feels victimized, makes threats
Dependence on alcohol or drugs
Is involved in a troubled, work related romantic situation
Suffers dramatic personality swings/depression
Evidence of psychosis
Active Assailants are likely to engage more than one target. They may target particular individuals or they may be intent on killing as many randomly chosen people as possible. Active Shooters often go to location with high concentrations of people, such as schools, theaters, shopping center, or other places of business.
Active Assailant's intentions are usually an expression of hatred or rage, rather than financial gain or motives associated with other types of crimes. Thus, police tactics of containment and negotiation may be an inadequate response to an active shooter.
Active Assailants often have made detailed plans for the attack. In many cases, they are better armed that the police. They usually have some familiarity with the chosen location.
Active Assailants often, but not always, are suicidal. Escape from the police is usually not a priority of an active shooter. Most active shooters have not attempted to hide their identity.
In some situations, Active Assailants choose a location for a tactical advantage.
-An Active Assailant is an individual or group of individuals who, regardless of motivation, ideology, or means, are actively killing victims.
-A Barricaded Subject is a person who has secured themselves within a location, disallowing access to law enforcement/first responders, who may or may not have hostages.
- An Active Assailant can quickly become a Barricaded Subject, and a Barricaded Subject can transition to an Active Assailant.
-The response for each scenario is completely different. Active Assailant response demands quick, direct action. Barricaded Subjects should be handled along with departmental policy, which may involve tactical teams, negotiators, etc.
- Don't Run to Your Death
- Information/Intelligence: What information does the responding officer have about the incident? Is the information credible and what is the time frame of other responding law enforcement officers? Is any credible intelligence about the scene available?
Response Plan: With the information and resources available, a plan must be quickly developed and executed.
Individual Skills and Equipment: The skills and tasks include, but should not be limited to, immediate assessment of an active shooter scene, room entry techniques, building-clearing, victim rescue, and recognition of explosive devices. Each individual officer must have the skills and capabilities to operate in a safe and successful manner. In reality, the officer will bring to the "fight" whatever equipment is on them. Equipment such as shields, breaching equipment, and other specialized equipment is desirable. However, tactics should be based upon basic officer tools with training in more advanced use of specialized equipment if a department or nearby agency has access to such.
Communications: Because active shooter incidents tend to be chaotic, effective communications are essential. Officers need to all be on the same page as much as is possible. Responding officers also need to be aware of departmental policies regarding on-site communications. Knowing operative radio channels for such an incident is crucial to effective objective completion There should also be an exceedingly clear method of verbal and nonverbal communication between officers on scene, in scene, and those arriving to the scene.
Priority of Life: One of the most basic tenets of law enforcement is the protection of life.
The Sounds of Violence: When searching for the killer, listen for, and go to the sounds of violence.
See Whole People: When looking for the attackers, do not fixate on "hands holding weapons." Law enforcement personnel from many places will be converging on the scene of the event. Officers should see "whole people" then collapse their vision to what is in people's hands.
Mindset: Officers have to be ready to fight. Another thing officers need to think about is whether they are ready to operate outdoors