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Block IV Flash Cards

Terms in this set (80)

Defense attorneys often try to undermine an officer's credibility by pointing to differences between his testimony in court and something he wrote in his report.

If there was an error in the police report, admit it.

Did you talk to the DA?"
Some defense attorneys routinely ask officers if they talked to the prosecutor or other officers before testifying in court. They usually do this to suggest that the officer was coached by the prosecutor, or that he met with other officers to "get their stories straight." Again, the thing to remember is, don't get defensive. There is nothing wrong with talking to prosecutors and other officers about a case. So if the answer is yes, say so—and do not feel compelled to offer any explanations or excuses.

Related Questions
An attorney might try to cause an officer to give an inconsistent answer by asking the same question several times with minor changes. According to an inspector, "Some attorneys will ask a question three or four times. Essentially when it's the same question but there's a little change in the language. They're trying to get a 'yes' answer to a question which was previously answered 'no.'"

Repeated Answers
An attorney might ask a series of questions which, for one reason or another, the officer cannot answer. In these situations, officers should try to avoid giving the same response to each question. For example, an officer who immediately responds "I don't recall" or "I don't remember" to a series of questions may be viewed as being evasive or uncooperative. Instead, officers should give each question some thought and try to respond as directly as possible. For example, instead of saying "I don't recall," they might say "I wasn't looking at that."

Summarizing Previous Testimony
Officers should be alert when a defense attorney asks a question that begins with a summary of their previous testimony; e.g., "Earlier you testified that . . ." The danger is that the attorney may deliberately or negligently misstate the officer's earlier testimony. If so, and if the officer answers the attorney's question, it may appear that he agrees with the attorney's summary. A defense attorney will sometimes paraphrase what the officer said earlier, but it's somewhat incorrect.
Male < 45
Loner, usually quiet, with defiant outbursts, emotionally unstable
History of violence
Elevated frustration level
Erratic behavior
Pathological blamer or complainer
Strained work relationships
Reduced productivity
Extremist views
Threatening behavior
Changes in Health or hygiene
Feels victimized, makes threats
Exhibits paranoia
Seems depressed
Dependence on alcohol or drugs
Is involved in a troubled, work related romantic situation
Suffers dramatic personality swings/depression
Evidence of psychosis
Active Assailants are likely to engage more than one target. They may target particular individuals or they may be intent on killing as many randomly chosen people as possible. Active Shooters often go to location with high concentrations of people, such as schools, theaters, shopping center, or other places of business.
Active Assailant's intentions are usually an expression of hatred or rage, rather than financial gain or motives associated with other types of crimes. Thus, police tactics of containment and negotiation may be an inadequate response to an active shooter.
Active Assailants often have made detailed plans for the attack. In many cases, they are better armed that the police. They usually have some familiarity with the chosen location.
Active Assailants often, but not always, are suicidal. Escape from the police is usually not a priority of an active shooter. Most active shooters have not attempted to hide their identity.
In some situations, Active Assailants choose a location for a tactical advantage.
- Don't Run to Your Death

- Information/Intelligence: What information does the responding officer have about the incident? Is the information credible and what is the time frame of other responding law enforcement officers? Is any credible intelligence about the scene available?

Response Plan: With the information and resources available, a plan must be quickly developed and executed.

Individual Skills and Equipment: The skills and tasks include, but should not be limited to, immediate assessment of an active shooter scene, room entry techniques, building-clearing, victim rescue, and recognition of explosive devices. Each individual officer must have the skills and capabilities to operate in a safe and successful manner. In reality, the officer will bring to the "fight" whatever equipment is on them. Equipment such as shields, breaching equipment, and other specialized equipment is desirable. However, tactics should be based upon basic officer tools with training in more advanced use of specialized equipment if a department or nearby agency has access to such.

Communications: Because active shooter incidents tend to be chaotic, effective communications are essential. Officers need to all be on the same page as much as is possible. Responding officers also need to be aware of departmental policies regarding on-site communications. Knowing operative radio channels for such an incident is crucial to effective objective completion There should also be an exceedingly clear method of verbal and nonverbal communication between officers on scene, in scene, and those arriving to the scene.

Priority of Life: One of the most basic tenets of law enforcement is the protection of life.

The Sounds of Violence: When searching for the killer, listen for, and go to the sounds of violence.

See Whole People: When looking for the attackers, do not fixate on "hands holding weapons." Law enforcement personnel from many places will be converging on the scene of the event. Officers should see "whole people" then collapse their vision to what is in people's hands.

Mindset: Officers have to be ready to fight. Another thing officers need to think about is whether they are ready to operate outdoors