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PSY 411 Test 3
Terms in this set (67)
A person who receives from a grantor.
Request for Proposal
Grant Proposal narrative
1. make the problem clear
2. specify the solution and connect to published research
3. Outline a specific plan for enacting that solution and make it clear what to expect
4. make clear how the grant money is going to fit into the proposed plan
5. follow directions in the FRP
Dr. Fischer believes what percent of adults are aging successfully?
some say fewer that 12%
What is successful aging?
1. Social engagement (the most important element)
2. positive attitude
4. physical health
What are the challenges of poor aging?
1. poor health
2. diminished cognitive ability
Young adults who had poor relations with their mothers are likely to have what style of attachment?
What are youth stereotypes?
1. Storm and stress
What are the 4 givens of existential psychology?
1. Meaninglessness (I have to create meaning)
According to Erikson Stage theory what are older adults struggling with?
Integrity and despair
Just World Theory
Assuming that people get what they deserve (leads to blaming the victim)
an implicit expression of negative beliefs and emotions
Materialistic Media Message
What do MMM do?
promote and glorify wealth and consumption
- facilitate economy growth
Police Planning Administration
Interventions to reduce ageism against older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. By Burnes, Sheppard, Henderson, Wassel, Cope, Barber. Pillemer
There is a strong link between ageism towards older people that can risk their physical and mental health
- combined interventions with education and intergenerational contact showed the largest effects on attitudes
- ageism has a negative impact on health, well-being, and quality of health care received
- interventions are educating professionals and the public
- interventions are effective among females and younger adults
GRADE (Interventions to reduce ageism against older adults)
Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations
Ageism can be hazardous to women's health: Ageism, sexism, and stereotypes of older women in the healthcare system. By: Chrysler, Barney, and Palatino
Women make up the majority of elders and women are perceived as older than men earlier
- this can contribute to minority stress
- The Perceived Unfairness Model: repeated exposure to prejudice can lead to negative health outcomes
- Elders who internalize their negative stereotypes report frequent hospitalization
- People who the terror management theory when working with adults
- Depersonalization occurs with doctors, discuss the patients case in front of them without addressing the patient
- Elders are not expected to use drugs or alcohol or be sexually active
- the best predictors of women's health is how healthy they were when younger
internalized negative stereotypes can produce self‐fulfilling prophecies through stereotype embodiment and contribute to weakness and dependency
Chrysler, Barney, and Palatino
Ageism can result in disrespectful treatment of older adults such as?
Baby talk and infantilization
Stereotype Embodiment Theory
suggests that when internalized ageist stereotypes are activated through stereotype threat, a microaggression, or another route
discrimination against people with disabilities
- PF: Person first language can reduce stigma
- Invisbling: whole groups are made to seem nonexistent because powerful people stop talking to them
- People with disabilities are sexually assaulted 7x higher than the normal population
causes slaves to flee plantations and freedom could cause disability/ insanity
language shapes the way we view reality
Free Appropriate Public Education
- 1970: 1 in 5 children with disability gained education
- 1973: section 504 of the Rehab Act
- 1975: (IDEA) Individuals with disability education act
- 1977: H.E.W
the science of improving a human population by controlled breeding to increase the occurrence of desirable heritable characteristics
- Buck v Bell (1927)
Acting as thought a different group is a threat
Least Restrictive Environment
Making those who cannot see look best: Effects of visual resume formatting on ratings of job applicants with blindness. By: Wang, Barron, and Hebl
the unemployment rate is still nearly twice as high among individuals with disabilities than among the general population
- Norm to be kind: individuals with blindness receive more positive evaluations
- Managers have negative expectations towards those with disabilities
- Applicants with chronological type resumes receive higher hire ability
- human resource managers base their hiring judgments on visual resume presentation.
- HR managers like visual format rather than contact alone
- Standardized applications are needed
Intellectual disability are significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills originating before the age of 18
Sexuality education and intellectual disability: Time to address the challenge. By: McDaniels and Fleming
individuals with ID are at a greater risk of sexual abuse, STD, and misinformation
- viewed as being incapable of making appropriate decisions regarding sexuality
- significantly higher rate of sexual abuse in this population than in non-disabled cohorts
- children and adolescents with IDs had a 4 times greater risk of sexual abuse than children without ID
- little to no understanding of use of condoms
Classification of Diseases
Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
Sexuality Information Education Center of the United States
What issues revolve around deafness?
1. Feeling of isolation
2. Sexual misunderstanding and abuse (Language Barries and 2-3x more at risk for abuse)
tied to your self concept
- 90% of the deaf population has two hearing parents and 88% of those parents don't know sign language
- not uncommon for deaf people to never surpass a 4th grade reading level
What is the deaf culture like?
Long greetings and goodbyes
Value eye contact
What is the hearing culture?
Volume and tone used to express emotion and emphasis
Barriers to healthcare services and supports for signing deaf older adults. By Lesch, Burcher, Wharton, Chapple
10% of Americans have hearing loss
- Incidental learning opportunities occur at the dinner tables
- ADA requires interpreters in medical settings
- lack of responsiveness to concerns by physicians, insecurity regarding medical bills, lack of consistent or reliable transportation, and street safety
- Individuals who are deaf report lower subjective health status and frequently have inadequate knowledge regarding illness transmission and preventive medicine
- deaf patients visit health care professional less frequently
- family members are not adequate interpreters
- 60% of the deaf population is over 65
What does Deaf mean
individuals who use American Sign Language (ASL) as their primary or predominant mode of communication and identify as a member of the Deaf Community, a minority group equipped with its own social norms
Video Remote Interpreting
the tendency for individuals who are associated with stigmatized people to face negative evaluations from others
- guilt of association
How do psychologist measure stigma?
Social Distance Scale
One-two punch on self esteem
direct impact on stigma and the stigma limits opportunities
People who are stigmatized against could have higher self esteem due to what?
Use of self esteem deference strategies and compensation
Discrimination is costly to employers and nations why?
Stigmatizing a group limits the skill, knowledge, and creativity that could improve companies, economies and society
Griffin, B., & Hu, W. (2015). The interaction of socio‐economic status and gender in widening participation in medicine.
SES was a significant determinant of choice to study medicine
- measures of past academic performance are subject to bias against applicants of lower SES
- Activation of a negative stereotype is thought to induce anxiety, self‐consciousness and low performance expectations, all of which reduce effort and actual performance
- basis of cognitive ability testing, the applicants from areas of low SES were further disadvantaged, especially if they were female
- people with low SES and low education history are less likely to apply to medical school
Social Cognitive Career Theory- states that self-efficacy impacts career decisions
- describes how environment‐imposed barriers result in the biasing of self‐efficacy and outcome expectancy beliefs, which limit the pursuit of medical careers by those from backgrounds of low SES
the interconnected nature of social categorizations such as race, class, and gender as they apply to a given individual or group, regarded as creating overlapping and interdependent systems of discrimination or disadvantage.
skills and techniques used to manage stigma
- social withdrawal
- self promotion
- political activism
- Attributing negative outcomes to prejudice
-Making in group comparisons (I am better off than others)
-Positive self reflection
when a seemingly neutral employment practice has a disproportionately negative effect on a protected group
Interventions for stereotyping included:
Education (workshops and courses)
- behavioral (contact hypothesis works when there is equal status among the members)
- cognitive (regulating your thinking and thinking in a greater complexity)
- giving voice (interactive theater program)
The idea that stereotypes and prejudice toward a group will diminish as contact with the group increases.
The negative affects of intergroup contact?
provoke anxiety and avoidance
Acknowledge the difference and similarities between beliefs
Negotiate agreement on what the final plan should be
Beliefs, customs, and traditions of a specific group of people.
working to create a safe space that is sensitive and responsive to a client's social, political, linguistic, economic, and spiritual realities
examining your own values, beliefs, experiences, and biases through self-reflection and lifelong inquiry, and being curious and open to learning about others values, beliefs, and experiences
is a person's ability to access, understand, use, and evaluate health information and services to make decisions about their health and well-being
Commit to developing awareness of your personal and cultural biases, values and views, and consider how these may change throughout your life
Kleinman's explanatory model:
a set of questions care providers can ask during an assessment which provides insight into what is most important for the client in terms of their health, illness, and care
Seeks clients participation
Help a client explore treatment options
Assess a clients values
Reach a decision with the client
Evaluate a clients decision
Park, J. J., & Denson, N. (2013). When race and class both matter: The relationship between socioeconomic diversity, racial diversity, and student reports of cross-class interaction.
students who attended more socioeconomically diverse institutions and more racially diverse institutions reported higher levels of CCI
- Engagement with racial diversity is associated with eadership skills, commitment to civic engagement, interracial friendship, and bias reduction
- the actual socioeconomic heterogeneity of a student body is linked with higher reported levels of cross-class interaction
- engagement across class lines is linked with elements of the campus racial climate.
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