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sociology final (chapter 18)
Terms in this set (27)
Which of these is an example of a commodity?
a. A restaurant meal
c. A college lecture
d. A book, blog entry, or magazine article
When did the first economies begin to develop?
a. When all the hunter-gatherers died
b. When money was invented
c. When people began to grow crops and domesticate animals
d. When the first cities were built
When people began to grow crops and domesticate animals
What is the most important commodity in a postindustrial society?
In which sector of an economy would someone working as a software developer be?
Which is an economic policy based on national policies of accumulating silver and gold by controlling markets with colonies and other countries through taxes and customs charges?
Who was the leading theorist on the development of socialism?
a. Karl Marx
b. Heidimarie Schwermer
c. Émile Durkheim
d. Adam Smith
The type of socialism now carried on by Russia is a form of ______ socialism.
a. centrally planned
Among the reasons socialism never developed into a political movement in the United States was that trade unions _________.
a. secured workers' rights
b. guaranteed health care
c. broke up monopolies
d. diversified the workforce
secured workers' rights
Which country serves as an example of convergence?
b. North Korea
Ben lost his job when General Motors closed U.S. factories and opened factories in Mexico. Now, Ben is very antiimmigration and campaigns for large-scale deportation of Mexican nationals, even though, logically, their presence does not harm him and their absence will not restore his job. Ben might be experiencing _____________.
b. global commodity chains
d. global assembly line
Which of the following is not an aspect of globalization?
a. Integrating governments through international trade
b. Integrating cultures through international trade
c. Integrating finance through international trade
d. Integrating child care through international trade
Integrating child care through international trade
One reason critics oppose globalization is that it:
a. has positive impacts on world trade
b. has negative impacts on the environment
c. concentrates wealth in the poorest countries
d. has negative impacts on political stability
has negative impacts on the environment
All of the following are characteristics of global cities, except:
a. headquarter multinational corporations
b. exercise significant international political influence
c. host headquarters of international NGOs
d. host influential philosophers
host influential philosophers
Which of the following is not a characteristic of multinational corporations?
a. A large share of their capital is collected from a variety of nationalities.
b. Their business is conducted without regard to national borders.
c. They concentrate wealth in the hands of core nations.
d. They are headquartered primarily in the United States
They are headquartered primarily in the United States
Which is evidence that the United States workforce is largely a meritocracy?
a. Job opportunities are increasing for highly skilled jobs.
b. Job opportunities are decreasing for midlevel jobs.
c. Highly skilled jobs pay better than low-skill jobs.
Women tend to make less than men do for the same job
Highly skilled jobs pay better than low-skill jobs.
If someone does not earn enough money to pay for the essentials of life he or she is said to be _____ poor.
About what percentage of the workforce in the United States are legal immigrants?
a. Less than 1%
What term refers to carrying out tasks that require mental and physical effort, with the objective of the production of goods and services that cater to human needs?
Which of the following best defines the term commodity?
a. An economic system which adheres to the principles of socialism.
b. An activity that benefits people, such as health care, education, and entertainment.
c. A physical object we find, grow, or make to meet our needs and those of others.
d. All of the other answers are commodities.
A physical object we find, grow, or make to meet our needs and those of others.
Which of the following is an example of structural unemployment?
a. A large fire burns down an automotive plant in Detroit, forcing the employees temporarily out of work.
b. Jim is part-time and wants a full-time position. When the company refuses, he quits.
c. Though many companies are hiring in Washington D.C., unemployment is high in Tennessee.
d. John quits his job after getting accepted into law school.
Though many companies are hiring in Washington D.C., unemployment is high in Tennessee.
Terrence and his family own a farm in a remote region of Chile. They farm only enough to produce enough food to feed the family, and pay their taxes. What are Terrence and his family engaging in?
a. Organic farming
b. Agricultural capitalism
d. Subsistence farming
Samantha is a researcher who studies economic change. Her work shows clearly how forces of worldwide economic competition are changing the nature of the work we do. What term do sociologists use to describe the process she studies?
a. Population transition
c. International relations
Jin is a conflict theorist sociologist. Which of the following statements about Occupy Wall Street would most align with Jin's sociological perspective?
a. Occupy Wall Street is dangerous; large crowds in these environments heighten the risk for sexual abuse and gender discrimination.
b. Occupy Wall Street helped to produce stability in society.
c. Occupy Wall Street is a threat; with so many angry people gathered in one place, horrible violence will surely break out.
d. Occupy Wall Street is positive; our capitalist economy is only making social inequality grow larger.
Occupy Wall Street is positive; our capitalist economy is only making social inequality grow larger.
Davis is low on cash, but really wants an electric guitar. He offers to trade his acoustic guitar, for his friend Bill's electric guitar. Davis is engaging in:
a. supply and demand.
d. pre-modern capitalism.
By 2009, America had suffered several consecutive quarters of economic decline. America was in the midst of a:
b. normal economic rhythm.
d. a bear market.
Keshawn used to work for an IT company in Baltimore, but lost his job when his company decided to use workers in New Delhi instead. This is an example of:
What is one reason unemployment statistics are unreliable?
a. The government only surveys those who have been out of work for a year or more.
b. The statistics include only those who are currently looking for work.
c. Those surveyed frequently lie about their employment status.
d. Difference states define unemployment in different ways.
The statistics include only those who are currently looking for work.
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