Upgrade to remove ads
Final (test 1)
Terms in this set (82)
What is the half-life of a signal?
Half-life is the amount of time it takes for half of the signal value we started with to be used.
Name the four classes of membrane receptor molecules.
G-protein receptor, integrating receptor, membrane receptor, enzyme receptor.
If the concentration of a ligand decreases, the target cell may insert more receptors into the cell membrane in an attempt to keep its response at a normal level, in a process known as ___________.
Most long-distance communication between cells takes place through the Answer and ________ systems with their combination of chemical and electrical signals.
continuously monitors its environment for a specific variable
receives information about the regulated variable and initiates a response
the desired target value for a parameter
the cell or tissue that performs the change
usually bind to receptors inside the cytoplasm or nucleus.
An integrating center
evaluates incoming signals and compares it with the setpoint.
Which is a difference between endocrine and neural control systems?
duration of action, specificity, nature of the signal, speed
Which is NOT a basic method of cell-to-cell communication?
Protein receptors exhibit
specificity, saturation, competition
The binding of lipophilic messengers, such as steroid hormones, to their receptors triggers
Both insulin and glucagon are peptide hormones that target liver cells. The response of the target cells to each of these two hormones is opposite. This information implies that
the two hormones bind to different cell surface receptors.
Down-regulation may allow a target cell to
decrease its number of receptors for a ligand.
Each of the following is a function of proteins EXCEPT
storage of genetic information.
The concentration of a solution expresses the amount of
solute per volume of solution, solute per volume of solvent
An important buffer in the human body is
Protein specificity is the
ability of a protein to bind a certain ligand or a group of related ligands
Potassium channels are usually made up of several subunits. This is an example of which level of protein structure?
Which level of protein structure occurs from spontaneous folding that results from covalent bonds and noncovalent interactions?
Which best describes an irreversible antagonist?
cannot be displaced by competition
Which is an allosteric modulator?
A substance that binds to proteins away from the active site.
Two methods of protein activation include ________ and ________.
proteolytic, cofactor binding
The reaction rate of many chemical reactions that occur in the body are controlled by molecules called
Cholesterol is a
component of animal cell membranes, precursor to steroid hormones
The watery medium that surrounds a cell is known as
What is/are the major role(s) of the phospholipid bilayer in the cellular membrane?
the formation of a barrier that is a selective for lipid-soluble molecules and to provide a framework for membrane proteins
Cell membranes are said to be ________ because they allow some substances to pass but not others.
The fluid substance of blood is called
Name the functional categories of epithelia.
Exchange, Transporting, Ciliated, Protective, Secretory
Which cellular organelle produces most of the ATP?
The term meaning "programmed cell death" is
This junction contributes to the blood-brain barrier.
Movement of material between cells is known as the ________ pathway.
When a chemical reaction is in equilibrium,
there is no net change in the amount of substrates or products.
When an enzyme's activity is inactivated by heat or a change in pH, the enzyme is said to be
A competitive inhibitor binds to
the active site
An allosteric modulator binds to
a region of the enzyme other than the active site
When energy is released during catabolism, it is temporarily trapped in high-energy bonds or electrons of certain compounds. Which of the following is NOT associated with carrying energy?
Compartmentation refers to
grouping related enzymes into specific organelles.
Aerobic metabolism of glucose
produces more ATP per glucose than anaerobic pathways, requires oxygen.
The reactions of glycolysis occur in the cell's ________; the reactions of the citric acid cycle occur in the ________.
Activation energy is
the energy required to bring molecules into a position where they can interact
A molecule positioned on the high-concentration side of a concentration gradient stores ________ energy.
Enzymes increase reaction rate by
lowering the activation energy of a reaction
Describe the distribution of water in the body's fluid compartments.
Water will move from one side of the concentration gradient to the other with the help of proteins. Only small, uncharged, and fat-soluble molecules can move easily through the concentration gradient. Water needs a carrier protein to move across.
The ability of a carrier molecule to transport only one specific molecule or a group of closely related molecules is called
The membrane proteins that bind to a ligand and act in the body's chemical signaling system are
form cell junctions
catalyze chemical reactions
moves substances across membranes
bind ligands as part of chemical signaling
the movement of substances against the concentration gradient
the movement of substances from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
tends to create an equilibrium state
the movement of substances through proteins embedded in the cell membrane; requires an input of energy
Na+ enters the cell
depolarization (becomes less negative)
Cl- enters the cell
hyperpolarization (Becomes more negative)
Which body fluid compartment contains high levels of K+, large anions, and proteins?
Sodium ions are more concentrated in the extracellular fluid than in the intracellular fluid. This is an example of
Water will always move from ________ areas to ________ areas, if the membrane is permeable to water.
Saturation occurs when
a group of carrier proteins is operating at its maximum rate.
A(n)____________ arises in the last endocrine gland in a complex reflex pathway.
A(n) ___________is a problem with hormones from the anterior pituitary.
Two hormones that have opposing effects are called ________.
The _______ of a hormone is a measure of how long a hormone is active in the body.
Which is NOT a method of hormone action?
control of ion or molecule transport across cell membranes, control of enzymatic reaction rates, control of electrical signaling pathways, control of gene expression and protein synthesis
The most complex endocrine responses involve the
Typically, when steroid hormones bind to their receptors,
gene transcription may increase or decrease
In a simple endocrine reflex, the endocrine cell is the
sensor and integrating center
Synergism occurs when
hormones working together produce a larger effect than predicted.
Which statement about peptide hormones is FALSE?
Peptide hormones in the bloodstream are always bound to carrier proteins.
Physiology is the study of
the normal function of living organisms.
Homeostasis is the ability of the body to
quickly restore changed conditions to normal
Oxytocin is a hormone released in response to cervical dilation. This causes more uterine contractions that will further dilate the cervix. Which type of feedback does oxytocin trigger?
The following is a list of several levels of organization that make up the human body. 1. tissue 2. cell 3. organ 4. molecule 5. organism 6. organ system. The correct order from the smallest to the largest is
4, 2, 1, 3, 6, 5.
You go outside on a very cold day and you start to shiver because you do not have on the proper clothing. The act of shivering would represent what step in a response loop?
True/False: The human body is best described as always being in a state of equilibrium such that all body compartments are identical.
________ are kept within normal range by physiological control mechanisms which are used if the variable strays too far from its ________.
Regulated variables, setpoint
Which are used to keep our systems at or near their setpoints?
negative feedback loops
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Final (test 2)
Final (test 3)
Final (test 4)
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Nutrition test 4
Anatomy Test 5
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
Respiratory Notes (Joann)
Neurobiologie - Motorisches System
URR Vascular mock exams