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70 terms

Ch. 19 A&P 2

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2 major functions of respiratory system
provide oxygen to all our cells, and removes carbon dioxide from our cells
oxygen is required for?
the oxidation of glucose during cellular respiration so that our mitochondria can store energy as ATP
carbon dioxide is?
a waste product of cellular respiration
where does cellular respiration occur?
It takes place in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells
whar are the products of cellular respiration?
oxygen breaks down glucose and produces, energy and carbon dioxide
ventilation
breathing or air movement within the respiratory system (in and out)
transport
of the gases oxygen and carbon dioxide by the blood
external respiration
gas exchange between the alveoli of the lungs and the capillaries of the blood vscular system
internal respiration
gas exchange between the capillaries of the blood vascular system and the tissue cells of the body
cellular respiration
energy production in cells using oxygen and producing carbon dioxide as a waste product. this is the ultimate goal of respiration
what is the function of the nose?
cleans air, moistens air, heats air,adds resonance to the voice, gives you a hereditary signature, houses the olfactory nerves which allow you to smell
how can the nasal cavity clean, heat and moisten air?
It can because of the special type of mucous membranes lining the upper respiratory tract
what type of membrane lines the upper respiratory tract?
psuedostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with goblet cells
cilia helps clean the air by?
sweeping particles toward the back of the nasal cavity where they are swallowed and enter the stomach, live organisms in particles are killed by stomach acid
how is air moistened?
goblet cells secrete mucus and also traps particles
what warms air?
venous sinuses located beneath the epithelium lining the nasal cavity warm the air as heat moves from the blood to the air within the nasal cavity
the roof of the nasal cavity is made of?
the roof of the nasal cavity(superior portion) is made of ethmoid bone(anteriorly) and sphenoid bone(posteriorly)
floor of nasal cavity is formed from?
the floor(inferior portion) of the nasal cavity is formed from maxillary bones(anteriorly) and palantine bones (posteriorly)
behind the hard palate is?
the soft palate(uvula) which is muscle covered by mucous membranes
the septum is made up of?
two bones, the vomer and the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone as well as hyaline cartlige
lateral wall of the septum has?
three shell shaped bones covered by mucous membranes to form the nasal conchae
nasal conchae function to?
supporting the mucous membranes lining the nasal cavity, increasing the surface area of the nasal cavity so that the air can be cleaned, warmed,and moistened quickly.
meatus
the are under each choncha
middle meatus
recieves drainage from the maxillary and frontal sinuses
inferior meatus
recieves drainage from the lacrimal ducts so sometimes when you cry tears come out your nose
what are sinuses
air filled spaces within the maxillary, frontal, ethmoid and sphenoid bones of the skull
what do the sinuses do
reduce the weight of the skull and serve as resonant chambers thus affecting the quality of your voice
structures associated with upper respiratory
external nares, nasal cavity, nasal choncae, pharynx or throat, larynx or voice box
structures with lower respiratory
trachea, and lungs
where is the pharynx located?
located posterior to the oral cavity and between the nasal cavity and the larynx
the pharynx functions in?
moving food into the esophagus, moving air into the larynx and aiding in sound production
anatomical term for throat?
pharynx
three parts of the parynx are?
nasopharynx(superior), oropharynx(middle) and the laryngooharynx(inferior)
larynx aka
the voice box
what is the larynx?
is an enlargement in the airway superior to the trachea and inferior to the pharynx
opening of larynx is covered by?
the epiglottis when you swallow
opening to the larynx is called?
the glottis
larynx functions to?
move air into the trachea, preventing foreign objects from entering the trachea when the epiglottis closes, and housing the vocal cords or folds
major cartilages of the larynx
include the epiglottal, thyroid, cricoid, and arytenoids
true vocal cords are?
attached to the arytenoid cartlilage and allow the true vocal cords to move
lowemost portion of larynx composed of?
cricoid cartilage
larynx muscles include
the false vocal cords,and the true vocal cords
loudness of sound depends on?
the force of air passing over the vocal cords
trachea is
a flexible, cylindrical tube anterior to the esophagus and in the thoracic cavity
structures of the bronchial tree
include the trachea, primary bronchi, secondary bronchi,tertiary bronchi, terminal bronchioles, and respiratory bronchioles
the function of the respiratory tubes
is to filter incoming air and distribute it to the alveoli
respiratory tubes
open into the alveolar ducts, which open to alveolar sacs and finally to alveoli
respiratory cycle
is one inhalation plus the following exhalation
tidal volume
the amount of air entering or leaving teh lungs during a normal respiratory cycle
vital capacity
is the maximum amount of air that be exhaled after taking the deepest breath possible
total lung capacity
is the total volume of air the lungs can hold
examples of nonrespiratory air movements
coughing, sneezing, laughing, hiccupping and yawing.
coughing
clears the lower respiratory tract (trachea and lungs)
sneezing
clears the upper respiratory tract (larynx, pharynx, and nasal cavity)
hiccupping
no known function. but occurs do to spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm
yawing
helps your body maintain alertness and or cool the brain
respiratory center
made up of neurons in the brain strem, primarily throughout the pons and especially in the medulla oblongata
neurons of respiratory system do what?
control the rate and depth of breathing
pneumotaxic area
regulates the rate of breathing
rythmicity area
regulates the rhythm of breathing
rhythmicity divided into
the dorsal respiratory group and the ventral respiratory group
dorsal respiratory group
regulates the basic rhythm of breathing
ventral respiratory group
regulates forceful breathing
stretch receptors
located in visceral pleura, bronchioles, and alveoli, they inhibit inspiration to make sure the lungs dont overinflate during forceful inhalation
low oxygen levels
if blood has low oxygen levels, chemosensitive areas of the respiratory center are stimulated to increase alveolar ventilation, thus decreasing blood carbon dioxide levels
how does alveolar gas exchange occur
gas exchange by diffusion occurs between the alveolus and the blood at the respiratory membrane
the respiratory membrane includes?
the cells and basement membrane of the alveoli and the cells and basement membrane of the capillaries of the blood vascular system
diffusion depends on?
the partial pressure of the gases in the lungs and in the blood
how is oxygen carried in the blood?
on hemoglobin in the red blood cells
how is carbon dioxide carried in the blood?
through the blood to the lungs as bicarbonate ions