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In Simons and Chabris's inattentional blindness experiment, participants watched a video of people passing a ball. Many participants failed to report that a gorilla walked through the scene, because:
their attention was focused on the ball, because they were counting the number of ball passes
Can you test people's ability to divide attention by giving them two tasks to do at once?
No, this method doesn't work
After taking Prof. Willingham's class, you want to use all of your wonderful new knowledge about attention to help your friends with their study habits. You ask them to email you details about their current study environments. Bob says he studies in Old Cabell Hall in front of the detailed and complex mural. Sam says he studies in his dorm while listening to classical music. Jen says she turns the volume all the way up on her white noise machine when she studies. From these responses, who would you recommend to change their study habits and why?
Sam, because the constantly changing nature of music is difficult to habituate to.
Patients with damage to the posterior parietal cortex show what type of response for the invalid/valid visual cue paradigm:
Really slow for invalid trials (on contralateral side of damage) but they use the cue on valid trials on either side.
Dave's grandmother always wore scarves with floral prints. Many years later, every time Dave sees a scarf with floral print, he feels comforted and happy.
According to the theory of classical conditioning, in this example the comfort the grandmother offers is the _____________, and the floral print scarf is _______________.
Unconditioned Stimulus, Conditioned Stimulus.
After the study of psychology shifted from a Behaviorist approach to a Cognitive approach, what was the biggest difference in how psychological phenomena were considered and tested, and how theories were formed?
Psychologists supplemented studies of behavior with theories about abstract constructs that supported thought.
Which of the following is true of the cognitive perspective to studying of the mind?
It involves inferring mental processes from observable behavior.
What was the difficulty associated with using abstract constructs to explain behavior?
If you allowed abstract constructs in theories, many theories could explain the same behavior and it wasn't clear how to choose among them
In Palmer's (1975) experiment, he showed participants a scene, and then briefly flashed pictures of objects that would or would not fit into the context scene. When asked to identify the objects, participants were able identify the objects that were appropriate to the context much better than the ones which were not appropriate to the context. This is an example of
Which of the following factors do people make use of while perceiving object size, as suggested by the ecological perspective?
Why is Wilhelm Wundt often considered the first experimental psychologist?
He did what was necessary to make psychology a field of study that could continue (e.g., he started a lab, trained PhD students, disseminated research)
Which of the following was a drawback of Introspectionist method of research?
The method just looked ineffective to university administrators, so they were reluctant to establish departments of psychology
Which of the following is an assumption humans make about light sources, reflectance and shadows?
Surfaces are evenly colored
Which is true about the template model of object recognition?
It could not account for how we can still identify an object when it changes in size.
Our visual system can easily find discontinuities in intensity through computation. These discontinuities are known as
Research has shown that flashbulb memories are typically characterized by the following, compared to normal memories:
Similar accuracy but higher confidence
Which of these question refers to memory encoding?
How are memories created?
One theory about forgetting for anterograde amnesics was that they might have some problems with their retrieval process. What is one reason that people gave up on this theory?
Anterograde amnesics can often retrieve memories from childhood without a problem
Today researchers would say amnesic patients can learn a mirror tracing task because :
There is more than one memory system
Cognitive economy refers to the idea that:
Shared properties of a category are stored only once with the higher level concept
The Collins and Quillian hierarchical model predicts that "A pig is a mammal" should be verified more _______ than "A pig is an animal." This prediction was found to be ______.
A research team gave a spatial memory test to some people and also measured their driving experience. They found that people with higher driving experience also scored well on spatial memory. Which of the following statements is true?
Driving experience and spatial memory may both be related to a third factor.
Sternberg proposed three possible ways in which we search our short-term memory. As he conceived of short term memory search, how would increasing set size affect reaction times, if the search is serial and exhaustive?
Reaction times increase linearly as set size increases, for both "yes" and "no" responses
The "big toe problem" refers to:
the idea that it's not obvious how it's helpful to know which brain area activates during certain tasks
There are many methods for localizing brain activity in healthy participants. __________ is the technique during which experimenters have participants complete two slightly different tasks - an experimental task and a control task - while their brains are scanned. Then the experimenter compares the brain activity observed in both.
A child is rewarded with praise for saying "mama" when her mother is present, but not when her brother is the only one present. In this example, the child's mother is acting as a:
In an experiment on working memory, you are given the word lists "golf, inn, star, wife, and dirt" and "alcohol, orchestra, officer, property, and gallery." Which list would you be most likely to remember and why, if you use the phonological loop?
The first list, because the words are shorter
Chunking is useful because it
increases the capacity of Working memory
During the renaissance, the scientific method was not used to study the mind because
Renaissance philosophers assumed the mind does not take up space and cannot be measured
Which of the following was a research question a structuralist was likely to investigate?
What are the elementary components that make up thoughts?
The main critique behaviorists made of cognitive psychology was __.
The abstract constructs of the mind proposed in theories are impossible to verify
Bob goes to a new local restaurant with some friends for dinner and orders haggis - which he has never eaten before. When Bob returns home, he quickly becomes sick. Once Bob recovers, he finds that even thinking about _______ makes him feel ill, in an example of _______.
The haggis, preparedness
Which of the following is an impediment to conducting neuroscience research?
Linking region-specific neural activation with behavior does not always provide insight into the underlying process of the behavior
Visual illusions show differences based on culture, which has been interpreted as showing:
We shouldn't trust the results of psychology experiments, because most of the participants come from a small set of similar cultures
Why is it useful to have more than one theory that we can test for a cognitive process like STM scanning?
If you propose just one theory and its disconfirmed, you know your theory is wrong, but you have no idea what's right
A patient with a traumatic brain injury is recovering in the hospital. A nurse brings him a cup of water with a lid. The patient asks for a straw, and when a straw is brought to him, he is unable to put the straw through the hole in the lid. The nurse, knowing the patient saw the lidded cup and asked for a straw, knows the patient was able to identify these objects. She then suspects he has damage to the _____.
parietal lobe (top of the brain)
Judy believes that the brain makes all kinds of assumptions about the environment in order for a person to identify objects and to navigate. Alice disagrees, saying that the environment is rich and full of visual cues for both identification and spatial mapping. Alice's view is called the
Ecological perspective of vision
Someone with prosopagnosia would exhibit which of the following deficits:
Inability to recognize people's faces
The interference seen during the Stroop Task happens during _____:
Which of the following describes a dual task paradigm?
A situation where participants are asked to perform two tasks simultaneously
The experimental finding that persons in dichotic listening tasks can report certain information from the unattended channel (such as their name) was originally considered evidence for ______, although in later years researchers thought it was happening because subjects weren't following instructions or because the stimuli were not well controlled.
Late filter theory
A mask influences iconic memory by
erasing its contents
Memory researchers coined the phrase "span of apprehension" that measured which of the following?
The amount of information perceived at brief exposures
Which of the following best describes how working memories can be coded?
visuospatially, semantically, acoustically
Which of the following is an example of episodic memory?
Remembering what you wore to your high school graduation
Which of the following is an example of an anatomic dissociation?
Having damage in one area of the brain that affects explicit memory but not implicit memory
The vivid memory of the elation that you felt after scoring the winning goal in a soccer game last week would be an example of which type of memory?
The best way to remember something is
To process the information at a deep level
The knowledge that most birds fly is an example of _________.
A default value
Desire to remember information has typically has what effect?
It doesn't affect memory on its own, but it might prompt more effective encoding
What is the term for recent memories being more disrupted in amnesia than older memories?
Which of these shows the correct order for how much people remember on each type of memory test, in general?
Savings in relearning > Recognition > Cued recall > Free recall
In Tulving et al's "Recognition failure of recallable words" experiment, participants saw pairs of words (like ground: COLD), but were told they would only be tested on the words in capital letters. At test, they were asked (a) to identify target words they had seen from a list of words and; (b) to recall the words in response to their cues (which were the words in lower case letters). They found that participants could recall some words which they could not recognize. What was the reason for this?
Because of the cue, the target word was encoded in terms of a specific feature, which one retrieval test emphasized but the other didn't.
One mechanism of forgetting suggests there's a spontaneous decomposition of memory, and the other mechanism suggests that there's a decomposition of memory, but it happens due to new learning. These are:
decay and unlearning
The mechanism of forgetting called "selective retrieval" includes
the theory that memory probes "light up" broad networks of memories, which then inhibit one another, leaving just one "winner" still active
Most people cannot remember episodic memories from about age 3 or earlier. Which account of forgetting has been suggested to play a role in this?
Chris recently saw a Labradingle, a breed of dog he has not seen before. According to the exemplar model, how did Chris process the Labradingle and decide it was a dog?
He compared the Labradingle with his memories of other dogs, found it similar enough to be a dog, and stored the Labradingle in his memory with a category label, "dog."
Mateo doesn't know much about musical instruments, but his girlfriend thought he might enjoy learning to play one, so she bought him an electric guitar. For Mateo, the category level of "electric guitar" would be:
How is category membership determined according to the prototype approach to categorization?
By comparing the thing-to-be-categorized to a concept which is the arithmetic average of the members of the category
Suppose an object has features that are rare for members of a category (e.g., jumping in a swimming pool with their clothing on), but when these features are observed, they are highly diagnostic of category membership (e.g., drunk people). People are likely to say such an object is a member of the category. Does this finding support probabilistic/similarity models of categorization?
Descriptive language rules differ from prescriptive language rules in that:
Prescriptive rules describe rules that people would accept about how to speak, whereas descriptive rules characterize language as it is ordinarily used by fluent speakers and listeners
Structured representations are needed to represent relationships that are _____ and ______.
"Time flies like an arrow" is an example of ambiguities that arise due to:
the fact that a single sequence of words is consistent with more than one phrase structure pattern.
Which of the following represents a challenges to Skinner's behaviorist theory of language learning in children?
parents seldom correct children's grammar.
The fact that we get tripped up by garden path sentences shows what about the parser?
It assigns grammatical roles word by word, as they are perceived.
In which of the following instances would lexical access occur, even if the word is mispronounced?
When mispronunciations are natural, ie. like those that people commonly make.
Which is true of teaching children to decode?
The phonics method is better
Joaquin has acquired dyslexia from a brain injury. If this injury has damaged the connection between his visual input and his lexicon, which of the following words would he think is not an actual word?
All of the following are problems with using an exclusively logographic writing system, except one: which is NOT a problem?
It's hard to represent abstract ideas (e.g., "democracy") with logographs
Researchers like Pylyshyn (1973) suggested that spatial experience of mental images in memory is an epiphenomenon. What did they mean?
Mental images accompany some mental processes like certain types of memory recall, but are not necessary for the mental processes to occur
Which of the following is true about how mental imagery differs from perception?
We image things oriented closer to being vertical or horizontal, even if what we are trying to image is oriented on a diagonal.
What was the resolution to the debate about imagery as a type of mental representation?
Researchers concluded that mental images are a type of mental representation
You're a contestant on a television game show and you're asked how much a microwave costs. However, the only kitchen appliance you've ever purchased is a coffee maker. Using the coffee maker as reference when figuring out the price of a microwave is and example of
If you play games offered in a casino you are definitely violating
Expected value theory
In a _________ theory of choice, decision-making is internally consistent, while in a _________ theory of choice, decision-making is prescriptive (e.g. certain choices are valued over others).
Although people do very poorly on formal reasoning problems, that's just because it's hard to make the rules of logic conscious. If you give people problems to solve, they use those rule unconsciously, in the same way that people unconsciously apply the rules of grammar when they speak.
In an experiment, all participants understand the rule, "white wine pairs with fish," and are then given a reasoning problem, "when I eat haddock, then I drink gin." What do the researchers find about people's reasoning in this problem?
People are not great at solving some problems even if they are familiar with similar problems.
Which of the following tends to be the biggest problem when people try to reason by analogy?
Thinking of a source
Algorithms are useful for problem solving
because they automatize the process of solving familiar problems.
For over twenty years you have driven from UVa grounds to the airport about once a week. What problem-solving method are you most likely to use to solve the problem of finding your way there?
Which of the following is true about using algorithms for problem solving?
They don't require much mental effort to use.
The early studies of twins (1990 and before)
overestimated the contribution of genes to intelligence because the sample only included fairly wealthy families
The Flynn Effect says that the average IQ of people within a country has significantly increased over a span of 20 years or so. This finding supports the idea that
Intelligence is more nurture than Nature, because researchers know that the gene pool countrywide could not change significantly in 20 years.
The quality of the school you attend doesn't affect your IQ
In testing what relates to the best recall, researchers have found that ___________.
Tests that prompt the same mental processes present during encoding lead to the best recall
Research showing similar activation patterns in the brain during encoding and retrieval supports which of the following kind of processing?
Transfer appropriate processing
Which of the following has been shown to be the most important contributor to forgetting?
Having insufficient cues to the target memory
Experiments on the definitional view of categorization (also called the classical view) showed that _________.
People sometimes learn concepts by developing hypotheses about rule that define categories
The definitional view of categorization (also called the classical view) claims that concepts are composed of a list of necessary features. Which of the following calls that view into question?
That people think that some members of a category represent the category better than other members of the category.
Research into language acquisition of children has shown that________.
Children go from two-word combinations straight to using sentences
Noam Chomsky made the distinction between competence and performance to highlight which of the following?
That people's knowledge of grammar often differs from their spoken use of it
Orthographic processing is
The visual process that allows recognition of individual letters
As we read a sentence we parse its phrase structure. Which of the following describes that process?
We assign phrase structure roles to each word as it is perceived
Which of the following is a belief held by Introspectionists that differed from Behaviorists?
Introspectionists believed it was essential for psychologists to study imagery because it is so important to thinking
The dual coding hypothesis is best defined by the idea that __________.
Concepts can be coded through imagery or linguistic representations
Expected utility was incorporated into decision making theory to account for ___________.
People having different preferences for an outcome of a decision
Which of the following is an example of a conversion error?
All squares are rectangles, therefore all rectangles are squares
Which of the following factors are people supposed to ignore when evaluating syllogisms but often do not?
Automatizing operators is useful because it _________.
Make cognitive resources available
Which of the following is true of heuristics in problem solving?
People use heuristics to guide their choice of operators
Other Quizlet sets
Heritage Studies 5 Chapter 9 Quiz A
Ch 19 Incident Scene Operations
A person who eats excessively and never seems to feel full may have which of the following conditions? a. Tumor in the hypothalamus. b. Too much insulin. c. Stomach ulcer. d. Stomach bypass surgery. e. Too much of the hormone PYY.
Which of the following phrases accurately describes top-down processing? a. The entry-level data captured by our various sensory systems. b. The effect that our experiences and expectations have on perception. c. Our tendency to scan a visual field from top to bottom. d. Our inclination to follow a predetermined set of steps to process sound. e. The fact that information is processed by the higher regions of the brain before it reaches the lower brain.
What do we call the smallest distinctive sound units in language? a. Structure. b. Morphemes. c. Grammar. d. Phonemes. e. Thoughts.
Which perception process are the hammer, anvil, and stirrup involved in? a. Processing intense colors. b. Processing information related to our sense of balance. c. Supporting a structural frame to hold the eardrum. d. Transmitting sound waves to the cochlea. e. Holding hair cells that enable hearing.