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AP Psychology Unit 1 - Scientific Foundations of Psychology
Review of vocabulary, key figures and terms.
Terms in this set (44)
the idea that knowledge comes from experience, and that observation and experimentation enable scientific knowledge.
an early school of thought promoted by Wundt and Titchener; used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind.
the process of looking inward in an attempt to directly observe one's own psychological processes.
an early school of thought promoted by James and influences by Darwin; explored how mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable the organism to adapt, survive and flourish.
the view that psychology 1) should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes.
historically significant perspective that emphasized human growth potential (the individual's potential for personal growth)
the study of mental processes, such as occur when we perceive, learn, remember, think, communicate, and solve problems.
the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection
the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
the scientific study of human flourishing, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive
an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning
the scientific study of the links between biological and psychological processes
a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders
the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking
enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading, information
An acronym for a five step study method: Survey, Question, Read, Rehearse, Review.
a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy
a branch of psychology that studies how people interact with their social environments and how social institutions affect individuals and groups
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
a carefully worded statement of the exact procedures used in a research study
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
a descriptive technique in which one individual or group is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
a descriptive technique of observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group
a flawed sampling process that produces an unrepresentative sample
all those in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
a statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1)
anything that can change in an experiment.
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables
perceiving a relationship where none exists, or perceiving a stronger-than-actual relationship
Regression toward the mean
the tendency for extreme or unusual scores to fall back (regress) toward their average.
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process
In an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
Recommended textbook explanations
C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
Katherine Minter, Mary Spilis, William Elmhorst
C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
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