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What stage of cellular respiration results in the most ATP being regenerated?
The purpose of fermentation is to prevent the buildup of NADH and pyruvate. T/F
Was there any gas produced in the glass with sugar and boiled water? Y/N
____ is the energy rich compound that is broken down to allow the yeast cells to survive and the resulting products are _____ and _____
glucose, carbon dioxide and water
Explain why phenolphthalein was used in this experiment.
indicator of acid
The flask with phenolphthalein and NaOH changes color when the ___ gas formed during respiration was passed through the solution. The gas dissolves in the solution and forms____.
carbon dioxide..... carbonic acid
The yeast cells can grow with or without oxygen. What is the term that describes these organisms?
Was there any difference in gas produced in cold water and at 35 to 40 degrees (body temperature)? Which had more gas cold water or 35 to 40 degrees? _______
What was the height of the gas in cms (centimeters) for the glass with the 35 to 40 degrees after 10 mins? _______
What is the chemical reaction for cellular respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 ---> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
glucose + oxygen gas = carbon dioxide + water + ATP
The three stages of cellular respiration are___, ____ and ___.
glycolysis, citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation
What stages of respiration take place in the mitochondria?
citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation
What stage of respiration takes place in the cytoplasm?
What is the difference between cellular respiration and fermentation?
cellular respiration needs oxygen, while fermentation does not need oxygen
In cellular respiration, we use glucose and oxygen. In photosynthesis, plants make ____ and _.
What plant structure allows for gas exchange in the leaf?
Name 2 photopigments found in a plant cell.
chlorophyll a and b
If we wanted to know how "red" a red liquid solution is, we would use a light transmittance measurement. Based on the lab, what device would be used?
The rate of photosynthesis is measured in the manometer experiment by measuring the rate of _ produced.
In the above manometer experimental set-up, what was the role of the beaker?
It absorbed heat from the lamp
What was the purpose of adding sodium bicarbonate to the tube with Elodea?
Sodium bicarbonate is a source of carbon dioxide
The bubbles formed in the tube with Elodea and sodium bicarbonate contain
What is paper chromatography?
it is used in analytical chemistry to separate the dissolved chemical substances by measuring their migration rates across paper. Here, we used it to separate four pigments of the spinach leaf and compared their Rf values obtained with those of known Rf values.
What is the Rf value?
Rf stands for "retention factor". It is used to compare and help identify compounds. We can calculated the Rf values of each of the pigments by dividing the distance each pigment moved by the distance the chromatography solution moved.
Which pigment has the highest Rf value? and therefore was most soluble
Which pigment had the lowest Rf value? and therefore was the least soluble
If a plant has a mutation, and does not produce any photosynthetic pigments, what do you predict will happen to that plant?
Photosynthesis will not take place and, therefore, carbohydrates will not be produce and the plant will die from the lack of energy
What would happen if an organism lost the ability to carry out cell division?
Damaged cells will not be replaced by new cell and organism may not function well.
What would happen if a group of cells in an organism suddenly began dividing at a higher rate?
it can result in a mass of cells which can lead to cancer
Animal cells do not have centrioles. Is this true or false?
Mitosis results in __ cells that are genetically _.
Majority of cells in a human body go through mitosis and not meiosis. Is this true or false?
DNA replication occurs during
Meiosis is defined as a
type of cell division that divides a somatic cell and produces 4 gamete cells
Which type of cell division results in?
a. haploid cells:
b. diploid cells:
c. cell with identical genetic composition:
d. cell with half the chromosomes number of the parent cell:
In which cell cycle were most of the cells found?
In which phase of mitosis were most of the cells found?
If very few cells are found in a certain phase of mitosis, what does this indicate about the length of that phase?
The phase is very short and ends quickly
Which phase of mitosis is the longest?
Which phase of mitosis is the shortest?
At the end of meiosis I, how many chromosomes are in each cell?
at the end of meiosis I, Are the cells haploid or diploid?
end of meiosis I, Are the chromosomes replicated or unreplicated
How many cells are produced by the end of meiosis II ?
end of Meiosis II, Are the cells haploid or diploid?
end of meiosis II, Are the chromosomes replicated or unreplicated?
What does the term allele mean?
one of two or more alternative forms of a gene
The genetic makeup of the organism is called its
_______, and the physical traits of an organism are called its
An individual that has two of the same alleles of a particular gene is said to be
An individual that has two different alleles of a particular gene is said to be _____
Given that the individual has a dominant phenotype, is it possible to determine its genotype?
no (which I don't agree because can perform cross test)
When two alleles are equally expressed, this is called
What is the genotype of a person without freckles?
What is the phenotype of a heterozygote?
What is the phenotype of a homozygous recessive?
What is the phenotype of a homozygous dominant?
What are the possible genotypes with someone with freckles? _____ and ____
FF and Ff
In a population of 215 F2 pea plant flowers: How many would you expect to be purple?
In a population of 215 F2 pea plant flowers: How many would you expect to be white?
In a population of 215 F2 pea plant flowers: What is the genotype for homozygous dominant?
In a population of 215 F2 pea plant flowers: What % of flowers are expected to be homozygous
In a population of 215 F2 pea plant flowers: How many flowers are expected to be heterozygous?
In a population of 215 F2 pea plant flowers: What is the heterozygous phenotype?
What are the genotypes of the gametes produced by a pea plant which is homozygous for seed color and seed shape RRYY?
What are the genotypes of the gametes produced by a pea plant that is heterozygous for seed color and seed shape RrYy?
RY, Ry, rY, ry
What genotypes will lead to blood group O phenotype?
What genotypes will lead to blood group AB phenotype?
Chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes are called
If the gene is sex linked, the alleles are written as superscript on the X chromosome. T/F
In the example shown in the video, what percentage of offspring will have the disorder?
The four nitrogenous bases in DNA are:
DNA is composed of subunits called ___.
The backbone or sides of the DNA ladder are composed of ____ and ____.
The biologically important weak bond that holds the two strands of DNA together is ____.
a hydrogen bond
The sugar in DNA is ___ and the sugar in RNA is ___.
A segment of DNA that results in the production of a cellular protein is called a
Protein biosynthesis involves the process of ______ followed by the process of _______
transcription and translation
The product of transcription is _______ and the product of translation is ____________
The DNA template strand sequence dictates the
_______ sequence, which dictates the _____ sequence, which dictates the 3D shape and subsequent function of the cellular __________
mRNA, amino acids, proteins
In the cytosol, structures called ______ are responsible for carrying out the process of translation.
During the process of translation, the _____ portion of the charged tRNA must bind to the corresponding
_______ in the mRNA.
Why does the cell need to replicate all of its chromosomal DNA?
a. So that the daughter cell gets the same amount of DNA as the parent to carry out all cellular activities
b. So that the daughter cells has all the instructions for survival
c. So that the daughter cells are not missing any DNA or genes
Please refer to the DNA replication diagram. After one round of replication, how much of each DNA daughter molecule is composed of the original parental DNA?
Please refer to the DNA replication diagram. After two rounds of replication, how much of each granddaughter molecule is composed of the original parental DNA?
unwinds the DNA and separates the two strand
Single-Strand Binding Proteins (SSBs)
keeps the two strands separated
Adds a short chain of RNA nucleotides
DNA Polymerase III
Adds new DNA nucleotides during DNA synthesis
DNA Polymerase I
Replaces the RNA nucleotides in the primer with DNA nucleotides
Joins the lagging strands or Okazaki fragments
prevents overwinding of the DNA helix as the two strands separate
Which of the two DNA strands most closely resembles the sequence of the mRNA transcript, the template DNA strand or the non-template DNA strand?
the non-template DNA strand
If a tRNA anti-codon reads 3'- GCC - 5', which amino acid does it carry?
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