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exam 3 fontenot
Terms in this set (263)
Developing from the same place. Males and females relatively have the same structures and functions. There is little difference.
The rupture or destruction of red blood cells
What is the goal of the urinary system?
It is trying to produce high concentrated wastes as urine from low concentrated wastes. This is a challenge because the system doesn't work that way, it works by diffusion. There are two possible strategies.
One of the two strategies that uses/costs energy to selectively secrete each molecule across the membrane to become urine
One of the two strategies that doesn't use/cost any energy and uses basic filtration, where the blood is filtered by size and good nutrients are pulled out. The good nutrients and small substances make it through and can be put back into the capillaries, which run back into the blood. What's left behind is called waste, which can be eliminated from the body through urine.
Of selective secretion and selective reabsorption, which strategy do humans use?
What are the structures of the urinary system in order of passage?
Urine goes through the kidneys > ureters > urinary bladder > urethra (All located on the posterior wall)
Filter blood ("200L/day" dependent on body size) to produce urine through the nephrons. This requires much surface area.
How many nephrons do two kidneys combined contain?
2.5 million. This maximizes surface to volume ratio.
Where are the kidneys located?
Retroperitoneal (Between and behind the parietal peritoneum)
Where do the kidneys acquire some protection from?
The rib cage because they are 1/2-2/3 inferior or below to the ribs
What are the kidneys protected in?
They are protected in the retroperitoneal space by a pad of fat overlying the ribs and muscle in the renal capsule, bound to the posterior wall by a connective tissue sheet
Pad of fat and connective tissue covering the external surface of the kidney, which is bound to at the posterior wall
What are the kidneys vulnerable for?
Blunt impact and injury/trauma
What do the kidneys divide into?
Renal pyramids that contain nephrons
Solid, small, and hard crystal masses formed in the kidneys by uric acid and calcium salts that are difficult to pass. To prevent these or rid them, you must drink plenty of water or you can drink caffeine or alcohol because it helps you go to the bathroom. These liquids prevent your urine from becoming too concentrated.
Transport urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder by peristalsis of smooth muscle
Urine comes in through ureters and gets stored here. It temporarily stores urine prior to elimination. It is mostly muscle so there is potential for stretching and contraction.
What is the average bladder capacity?
0.5 L dependent on body size
Why is the urinary bladder smaller in females?
Mostly because it's positioned between the uterus and pubic bones, but also because of the vagina and ovaries. There is more stuff in the peritoneal cavity, so there is no room for the bladder.
Located on the inside of the bladder. After 1/3 of total capacity, stretch receptors are stimulated and stretching begins. As it stretches, you have to urinate extremely bad. You have no choice or it will come out.
How big is a male urethra?
20 cm (Urethra + length of penis)
How big is a female urethra?
5 cm (Just urethra)
Why are females more likely to get a UTI than men?
Males urethra is 4x the length of females. This is why UTI rates are lower for males. Females length is super short, which allows for a higher risk of potential bacteria to move through the urethra overnight and cause a UTI. To prevent UTI's, release your urine before going to sleep to wash things out or cranberry juice helps with prevention. It prevents bacteria from sticking onto the sides on hooks.
Two sphincters that are close to the base of the urethra
Involuntary smooth muscle. Ex. Holding urine in when sleeping.
internal Urethral Sphincter
Voluntary smooth muscle. Ex. Holding urine in because you want to.
External Urethral Sphincter
How do you consciously control an involuntary muscle?
No control over it. You have to be relaxed enough for voluntary control of involuntary muscle.
What is the function of the urinary system?
Filters the blood and removes wastes from the blood to produce concentrated urine that is eliminated from the body
What is the functional unit responsible for filtration and urine concentration?
Nephrons in the kidneys (They mostly complete the filtration part)
Outer portion of the kidney
Inner portion of the kidney
Located in the inner portion of the kidney (Renal medulla) and contain 2.5 million nephrons at the top end that extend out to give pyramidal shape that continues all the way across the kidney
What is at the end of each nephron?
A collecting duct follows the nephron. These collecting ducts go to the renal papilla. This all deposits and goes into the big tube at the minor calyx. When minor calyx join together (2 or more) they are called a major calyx. Major calyx drain into the renal pelvis (Kidneys), then into the ureters, urinary bladder, and finally, the urethra.
What do the minor calyx drain into?
What are too large to move through the glomerulus to Bowman's capsule?
Blood cells and proteins, although some small proteins and other small particles can make it through
The longer the Tube/Loop =
The more water you can draw out by using salt concentrations (Defines the two types of nephrons)
Short looped nephrons. The loop is in the cortex.
Long looped nephrons that can draw out more water from the urine. The loops goes almost all the way to the bottom of the medulla.
Explain the glomerular filtration in the nephron
Bowman's capsule begins the first part of the nephron that performs the first step of filtration of blood to form urine. A glomerulus is enclosed in the sac. It receives branches that come off the renal artery. Arterioles are those branches that come off of the renal artery. An arteriole called the afferent arteriole goes up first to meet the glomerulus. The glomerulus is a very circular structure. It branches again at the efferent arteriole, which is the pathway that leaves the glomerulus. The glomerulus is the main site for filtration of blood, fluid, and wastes by molecule size by pores (Fenestrae). Blood is taken to create filtrate and the rest of it is allowed to flow on. Bowman's capsule will collect the filtrate and fluid that comes out of the glomerulus.
What happens during the filtration of blood and concentration of urine?
First, the blood is filtered by size and the good nutrients are pulled out. Also, once everything is filtered through the capsule, the things that are small enough remain in the tubule (Small proteins can make it through, but large ones can't). The good nutrients and small substances can be put back into the capillaries, which run back into the blood. What's left behind after this is called waste, which can be eliminated from the body through urine. The waste can be examined at the molecular level. Urine is produced not only to eliminate many cellular waste products, but also to control the amount of water in the body. The body decides whether or not to eliminate the watery urine from the body. In some cases, you may need to keep it in for a while so you don't get dehydrated.
Why is urine produced?
To eliminate many cellular waste products and to control the amount of water in the body
What draws water out of the tube?
If the body doesn't have enough water, to prevent dehydration, high salt concentrations draw water out of the tube (Especially the collecting ducts) and filter it back into the capillaries that run back into the blood. By drawing this water from the tubule and putting it back, it is increasing the concentration of the urine left behind in the tube.
What is done with excess water?
If it is not drawn from the tubule and put back into the capillaries that run back into the blood, it is eliminated out of the body as watery urine
Movement of water and dissolved substances from filtrate out of the tube and absorbed back into the capillaries
Movement of solutes from blood to filtrate into the tube
Liquid/fluid found between the cells of the body that provides much of the liquid environment of the body
Interstitial (Peritubular Fluid)
-In the glomerulus, this is the blood pressure that means blood moves along the capillaries, fluid moves out through its pores and into the interstitial space. The pressure will start up slow, but you will eventually build up and accumulate pressure into a high pressure until it remains equal. Pressure is always going to be higher because the heart is providing pressure.-(ALWAYS HIGHER)
Blood Hydrostatic Pressure
-This is Bowman's capsule pressure that is always going to be lower because it is always leaving the tube, but even so, this pressure can accumulate because it can't all leave at once. There is a negative effect on filtration because as capsular pressure increases, the filtration rate decreases. This is the main force slowing the rate of filtrate production. As fluid accumulates in the capsule, pressure increases.-(ALWAYS LOWER)
Capsular Hydrostatic Pressure
In both hydrostatic pressures, the bigger the difference between the two numbers along the way =
-In both hydrostatic pressures, the smaller the difference between the two numbers along the way =
-More movement and faster the movement
-This idea is diffusion
This is the pressure that has to do with the difference between the water concentrations of blood and filtrated blood. It has a positive effect on the concentration rate because as the blood pressure increases, the difference between the two concentrations increases. This results in more movement and faster the movement. It works the same way as the blood hydrostatic pressure.
Blood Osmotic Pressure
This is the difference between the water concentrations of the capsule. It has a negative effect on the concentration rate because as the blood pressure increases, the difference between the two concentrations decreases. This results in less movement.
Capsular Osmotic Pressure
If you have high blood pressure, is there an increase or decrease in filtration rate?
Reabsorption of nutrients like ions, organic molecules, water, vitamins, etc. Whatever was taken out can be put into the capillaries and blood to go back to the heart. Whatever is left is called waste and by this point, the urine is formed. At this point, start to control water, ion, and pH balance.
If you take water out of the Tube =
Less water in the tube and more concentrated urine (Dark yellow)
Too much water in the Tube =
More water in the tube and less concentrated urine (Light yellow)
-Secretion of Na+ and Cl-, reabsorption of H2O-The salt ions are transported back into the descending limb of the loop as necessary, thus "multiplying" the urine dehydrating/concentrating power of the loop. This countercurrent term identifies that descending limb fluid is flowing in a direction opposite that in the ascending limb, which allows for the recycling of the ions.
Loop of Henle (Descending Limb)
-Reabsorption of Na+ and Cl--When water gets here under influence or aldosterone, the Na+ and Cl- ions are actively transported out of the tube and into the surrounding interstitial (Peritubular) fluid. This relatively high salt concentration draws water out of the tube (especially the collecting ducts), thereby increasing the concentration of the urine left behind in the tube. Pulling water out of the tube can help you if you are dehydrated.
Loop of Henle (Ascending Limb)
Because of dehydration, you put in and take out NaCl, called ___________ because you are getting exchange from two different sides.
Reabsorption of H2O and Na+, secretion of acids, ammonia, drugs, and toxins
Reabsorption of H2O and Na+, secretion of HCO-3 and H+
What happens at the end of the tube?
Urine to bladder and finally, urine is eliminated to the exterior at the urethra
What does the rate of filtration depend on?
Water concentration and concentrated molecules
Controls water permeability
Anti-Diuretic Hormone (ADH)
Controls movement of Na+ and Cl- or salt gradient. The more salt, the greater the power of pulling water out of the tube.
Cause water to stay in the tube (Caffeine and alcohol). The water that should be being removed and returned to your blood is coming out as urine. They cause more water and urine to come out than should, which causes a decrease in concentration.
What is urine made of?
Water, urea, uric acid, creatinine, ammonia
What are water, urea, uric acid, creatinine, and ammonia used to transport?
The main nitrogen compound in urine because it's relatively non-toxic
In high concentration can cause crystals (Kidney stones)
Can handle in low ammounts
Toxic at low levels and high levels
These characters are the first indicators of sex. The two sexes are males and females. The ovaries and testes that produce egg and sperm cells are what defines sexual reproduction.
Primary Sex Characters
influenced by hormone production that causes a visible difference between male and female secondary sex characters. Ex. Males have a deeper voice, the size of their thyroid cartilage is different, and they have more facial hair. Males have less developed mammary glands than females. Fat is stored as mesenteric on the inside in males, but it is stored subcutaneously at the hips in females. Males have wider shoulders. Females pubic bone is at the angle of the acetabulum. The head of the femur meets with the pelvis at the acetabulum. Also, both sexes have differences in cheekbones and the jaw, etc.
secondary sex characteristics
Egg and sperm cells
Produce egg cells. Eggs are expensive to produce in terms of the amount of energy needed and size.
Mature egg cells
What helps to support an embryo?
Proteins and lipids that go into the eggs
Produce sperm cells. Sperm is cheap to produce and come in big amounts.
Any cells in the body other than the reproductive cells. These cells are diploid cells (2N- 46) that contain two sets of chromosomes. 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 total).
Cells that contain two sets of matched pairs of chromosomes, called homologous chromosomes. One set of the chromosomes are from the mother and the other set is from the father. Both sets code for the same character.
Diploid Cells (2N- 46)
Mature gametes (Egg and sperm) have these. The egg contains one complete set of chromosomes and the sperm contains one complete set of chromosomes. After the egg's chromosomes are combined with the sperm chromosomes, they contain only one complete set of chromosomes, thus they have half the number of chromosomes as diploid cells.
Haploid Cells (N- 23)
How many sets of chromosomes in human cells do diploid cells have?
How many pairs of homologous chromosomes are there in each diploid human cell
How many total chromosomes are there in each diploid human cell?
How many sets of chromosomes in human cells do haploid cells have?
How many pairs of homologous chromosomes are there in each haploid human cell?
What are the two cell division processes?
Mitosis and meiosis
What is mitosis for?
growth and repair
Where does mitosis occur?
When does mitosis occur in males? Females?
In males, it begins when you hit puberty and occurs constantly. In females, it happens before birth.
Where does meiosis occur?
What happens during meiosis?
You start with a diploid cell that divides twice to produce two haploid cells from each diploid cell. In other words, a diploid cell that has 2N- 46 chromosomes produce four haploid cells total, each of which contains N- 23 chromosomes (2N > 2N + 2N > N + N + N + N).
How is meiosis I similar and different to mitosis?
Meiosis I is really a mitosis division because it is going from 2N > 2N + 2N, which is identical to mitosis, but it is called meiosis I because cells go through DNA replication and CHROMOSOMES STAY ATTACHED AT THE CENTROMERE, whereas in mitosis the two chromosomes would separate.
How is meiosis II different than meiosis I?
From meiosis I, you get 2N > 2N + 2N. From meiosis II, you get two haploid cells from each diploid cell. There are four haploid cells total. The difference with meiosis II is that there is DNA, but there is no synthesis of DNA. There is NO DNA REPLICATION, they just SEPARATE AS SEPARATE CELLS and go their separate ways and through cytokinesis.
What type of cell division occurs in meiosis II?
Haploid mitotic divison
What is the difference in cell division with females?
Females go through the same processes of mitosis, meiosis I, and meiosis II. The only difference is that once the haploids are formed, only one mature ovum continues to grow to become fertilized. The others do not grow and do not become fertilized and they will die. The ones that stop growing and die are called polar bodies.
Ovaries descend to a lesser degree because they can only descend so far. The growth of the ovary eventually stops and it lies in the pelvis of females. Their connection to the inguinal canal is indirect.
Descent of the Ovaries
Testes descend to a greater degree and pass from the abdominal cavity through inguinal canal to the scrotum
Descent of the Testes
Do males and females have the same developmental pathway?
Yes, but instead of the scrotum, females have the labium that contribute to their genitalia. Major and minor labium fuses and causes the raphe (Fusion line). At a certain point, males growth would keep growing outside of the body, but females would close and attach together. Both continue to the anus.
Where do females have a raphe (Fusion line or two halves that close together)?
butt to vagina
At what temperature does sperm production occur?
94 degrees F, which is a lower body temperature than normal body temperature. If the temperature is not right, then the formation of sperm is deformed. If the temperature is above 94 degrees the tales tend to be bent. The deformation and bent tales cause reduced motility rate, which leads to reduced fertilization rate.
What is the motility percent of sperm if they undergo 94 degrees F in temperature?
What is critical for sperm production?
What is thermoregulation (94 degrees F) accomplished by?
Contains testicular vein, artery, and nerve, vas deferens, cremaster muscle, and the epididymis
Muscle in the vas deferens of the spermatic cord that pulls the testicles and scrotum closer to the body in cold temperatures and relaxes to let the testicles be farther away from the body in warmer weather. If cold, contract cremaster muscle and produce heat. If not cold, relax cremaster muscle and testicles hang outside the body.
1 mm smallest muscle in humans. Origin on the testes and insertion on the scrotum skin. It pulls the scrotum skin closer to the testes and causes wrinkling, which can push the testes into the inguinal canal.
Production of sperm that occurs in the seminiferous tubules of the testes
Narrow, coiled tubules in the testes that produce immature sperm cells
Mature sperm cell
Sperm cells are produced throughout entire life. How many are produced per ejaculate?
Producing less than 100 million sperm. Most likely can't reproduce.
How many sperm cells does it take for fertilization and reproduction?
1. The cells help each other out by swimming and pushing off of each other.
What produces testosterone?
Interstitial cells of the testes are the big producers of it. Adrenal glands produce it too.
From the testes, sperm cells are transferred here, where they mature and are stored here until they are needed (Ejaculation)
How long are sperm cells allowed to mature?
The sperm cells mature by finishing mitosis and growth and differentiation for 2-3 days
How long are sperm cells stored in the epididymis?
30 days. If they are not stored or are not released after 30 days then they break down, die, and are recycled.
How many days of life do sperm have once they are released from the epididymis (Post ejaculation)?
What happens upon ejaculation?
After leaving the epididymis, sperm are transported by peristaltic waves through the vas deferens, into which the products of the accessory glands are contributed to the semen
What are the accessory glands?
Seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral gland
Sperm + the products of the accessory glands (Which nourish, buffer, and protect the sperm).then transported out of the penis through the urethra. The rest of the contents are erectile cells.
Semen (Seminal Fluid)
What percentage of the testes make up the seminal fluid?
The testes are alkaline and they make up 5% of the seminal fluid
What is the function of the testes that make up the seminal fluid?
Their function is that they produce sperm with watery fluid to carry them along for fertilization
What percentage of the seminal vesicles make up the seminal fluid?
The seminal vesicles are alkaline and make up 60% of the seminal fluid
What is the function of the seminal vesicles that make up the seminal fluid?
Their function is that they produce fructose, prostaglandins, and fibrinogens
What percentage of the prostate gland makes up the seminal fluid?
The prostate gland makes up 20-30% of the seminal fluid
What kind of environment does the prostate gland provide? How is this beneficial?
The prostate gland's secretions are mildly acidic of the vagina. This helps with immunity of UTI's because the secretions neutralize bacteria to prevent bacteria contraction so that sperm are not killed by the bacteria.
What is the function of the prostate gland that makes up the seminal fluid?
It's function is that it produces a milky white prostate fluid. Here, enzymes are used to dissolve the clotting and clumping of the ejaculate that occurs in the fibrinogens. During ejaculation, this helps to propel the semen into the urethra.
What percentage of the bulbourethral gland (Cowper's gland) makes up the seminal fluid?
The bulbourethral gland is alkaline and makes up 5% of the seminal fluid
What is the function of the bulbourethral gland (Cowper's gland) that makes up the seminal fluid?
It's function is that it provides clear, slicky fluid for lubrication during intercourse. It has to be released before ejaculation (Pre-cum)
What is the overall pH of semen/seminal fluid?
The penis contains three elongated cylinders of erectile tissue. What are they?
Two corpus cavernosa and one corpus spongiosum
What are the corpus cavernosa and corpus spongiosum responsible for?
They help with supply and venous drainage (Erection)
Two cylinders of erectile tissue lying side by side on the dorsal side
A single cylinder on the ventral side which contains the urethra in the center
Increase arterial supply by dilating the artery and decrease venous drainage by constricting the vein, which will restrict blood from leaving. The tissue/structure expands and becomes bigger by increasing blood pressure.
Foreskin or head around tip that is removed in circumcized males
Head of the penis that contains sensory nerve endings and sebaceous glands
Keep the surface of the penis moist
What is lost during circumcision?
There is loss of sensory nerve endings, sensitivity, and the sebaceous glands are closed, so the penis dries out
What is the average age for sexual maturity?
What is the minimal age for sexual maturity?
This is the hormonal process that a female's body goes through each month to prepare for possible pregnancy. The goal is that the egg cell is produced and fertilization occurs. The energy source changes as you go along through the cycle.
How long is the menstrual cycle?
What causes the menstrual cycle?
drop in hormone
What are the events of the uterine cycle?
Mensus, proliferation phase, ovulation, secretory phase
Day 1-5. This is the beginning of the menstrual period when blood flow begins and there is a drop in progesterone. The pre-capillary sphincters begin to constrict. The capillaries rupture and the source of blood flow to the endometrium is shut off. The endometrium of uterus is the tissue that is coming off and being shed each month, which is the end of mensus. Once this phase is complete, the body must rebuild the endometrium.
What levels drop during mensus?
Day 6-13. Rebuild the endometrium to prepare for ovulation.
Day 14. While the endometrium is being rebuilt, an egg is being developed by an ovary and on day 14, an egg is released
Day 15-28. Thickening of the endometrium occurs. Endometrium glands will enlarge and the glands will increase secretions. This phase provides nutrients, so when the egg cell lands in the endometrium there is already a food source.
What occurs between day 15-16 before implantation of the egg?
Day of implantation of fertilized egg
What happens if implantation occurs?
The egg will make a living through secretions like mucus to receive nutrients, then it will make a living through the capillaries and the placenta develops. The cells of the implantation site produce HCG. HCG send a message to the corpus luteum (Yellow body) to keep producing progesterone and estrogen, which helps to develop the placenta.
What hormones promote growth?
HCG, estrogen, progesterone
What happens if implantation does not occur?
If there is no implantation of the egg after day 28, then hormones drop, capillaries rupture, and the endometrium breaks down again, starting the process over. Mensus begins
What are the events of the ovarian cycle?
follicular phase, ovulation, luteal phase
Produced in the anterior pituitary gland and is released at the beginning (Day 1 or 2) of the ovarian cycle in the follicular phase and continues through the proliferation phase of the uterine cycle (Reuilding of the endometrium). In the follicular phase, one of the follicles is stimulated to start developing an egg cell (Day 1-5).
What does FSH initiate in males and females?
Initiates spermatogenesis and oogenesis, which are the production of sperm and egg
What happens once the follicle is stimulated?
The follicle begins producing proteins and lipids (Vittelin) that will go into the egg cell
Produced in the anterior pituitary gland and is released at the end of the proliferation phase. It causes the outer membrane of the ovarian follicle to rupture and an egg cell flies out of the surface and is released as a mature ovum. Cellular debris scatters everywhere (Ovulation).
What does the LH stimulate in males and females?
In males, it stimulates the production of testosterone by the interstitial cells. In females it stimulates ovulation, the endometrial glands, and the corpus luteum (Yellow body), which produces estrogen and progesterone to simulate pregnancy.
LH converts what was the follicle , which starts producing estrogen and progesterone temporarily (Almost pregnancy level)
When the placenta takes over, the corpus luteum stops and changes from a yellow body to a white body, called
What increases pregnancy levels?
estrogen and progesterone
The placenta is the source for HCG. It lets all other systems know that there is an implanted zygote. In females, HCG stimulates growth and maintains the corpus luteum (Yellow body), which produces progesterone and estrogen, which helps to develop the placenta.
What hormone is being detected in early pregnancy tests?
What will be produced on day 13 because of the LH stimulating the endometrial glands?
Mucus, which the egg will make a living through to receive nutrients
What is the source of testosterone?
testes and adrenal glands
What provides secondary sex characters in males?
Blocks ovarian cycle by keeping another ovulation from happening until one ovulation is complete
What is the source of estrogen?
ovaries and adrenal glands
What hormone contributes to the ovarian cycle and secondary sex characters in females?
Keeps menstrual cycle from happening and maintains capillaries and the endometrium
What is the source of progesterone?
corpus luteum and placenta
What does progesterone do in females?
maintains the endometrium (uterine wall)
What is each ovary surrounded by?
The production of mature egg cells (Ovum)
How many oocytes does each ovary contain?
A immature cell in an ovary that may undergo meiotic division to form an ovum (Mature egg cell)
How many primary oocytes are present at birth?
Stem cells that go through cell division mitosis to produce primary oocytes
A cell that gives rise to the secondary oocyte and polar body after first meiotic division (Meiosis I).
A cell in which the first meiotic division is completed. The second meiotic division occurs and usually stops short of completion unless fertilization occurs.
What are the layers of the uterus?
endometrium, myometrium, perimetrium
Base layer (Innermost) of the uterus that produces the rest of the surface layers. This layer supports the fertilized egg through development. The surface contains endometrial glands (Secretion source) and endometrial capillaries (Support placenta).
What creates the placenta?
What does the egg make a living off of before getting to the endometrium?
Thick layer of smooth muscular middle layer of the uterus that produces contractions to push the fetus out of the birth canal for childbirth. It also facilitates fertilization when females have orgasms because the myometrium has pulsating contractions during this time that acts as a suction.
Protective layer (Outermost) of the uterus. Once you pass this layer, there is a transparent membrane.
Feathery finger-like projections on the inside of the fallopian tubes that encapsulate and activate the ovary. They draw eggs from the ovary into the fallopian tube so that they do not go out the wrong way.
Located on the inside lining of the fallopian tubes that helps egg cells get into the tube because the motions draw interstitial fluid into the tube, which helps to draw the egg cells in
Where does fertilization occur?
How long is ovum life?
fertilized egg cell
How long after fertilization does cell division occur?
What is the process of cell division?
The zygote goes through cell division and becomes the morula, then the blastula that creates a band of cells with three distinct layers. Cells divide faster at each stage.
Solid ball of cells that make up an embryo
Hollow ball of cells that make up an embryo. Towards the end, one side of the blastula begins to divide more than the other and begins to migrate away from that pole so that you get a concentration of cells dividing as a band- Embryonic Disk (Layers).
What are the three distinct layers of cells or tissue of an embryo in early development?
ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
Muscular and skeletal systems (MIDDLE)
Respiratory and digestive systems (INNERMOST)
Outermost membrane surrounding the embryo. It taps into the capillaries and forms the fetal part of the placenta. Once the embyo starts feeding off of the capillaries, the placenta forms.
fertilized egg implants outside of the uterus. The placenta forms outside of the reproductive area. It means that the embryo landed on blood capillaries that it can tap into to get blood supply to support the fetus. If it receives a good enough blood supply then it can support the fetus full term.
happens when a fertilized egg gets stuck on its way to the uterus, often because the fallopian tubule is damaged. The pregnancy is inside the fallopian tubule and when the fetus grows, it will rupture the tubule.
Contains two corpus cavernosa and one corpus spongiosum that is split into two
What do accessory glands in the female do?
Help with lubrication in the vagina
Female organ of intercourse; birth canal. It connects to the cervix of the uterus. It is a connective tissue tubule.
How long is the vagina?
What does the vagina connect to?
Tissue on anterior wall of vagina that is very sensitive because of nerve endings. With sexual orgasm there is alot of discharge because of prostate tissue. This is comparable to the male prostate gland.
How do lymphatic vessels begin?
They begin as capillaries and grow on the way to the subclavian vein
How are the right and left subclavian different? How is this similar to the right and left lymphatic duct?
They are not symmetrical or doing the same thing because they drain different sides. What goes into the right subclavian vein is not the same as what goes into the left subclavian. On the other hand, the right lymphatic duct only drains the right upper quadrant, while the left lymphatic duct drains the rest. They are not symmetrical.
What is the function of the lymphatic system?
How are lymphatic vessels similar to veins?
They have thin walls and one-way flap valves so that they flow in only one direction using muscle pressure
How is lymph moved through lymphatic vessels?
Muscle contraction and thoracic pumping
Ventricular diastole (High/low pressure) that causes mild change in pressure in the chest that pulls venous blood into the vena cava and right side of the heart so that it can circulate to the lungs
Where are the patterns of the lymphatic vessels similar too?
Greater saphenous vein/network. Because of the pressure and superficial location, they are susceptible to compression.
The main function of lymph nodes is the filtration of lymph. If you pick up an infection, which are checkpoints that are antigen traps. They stop and isolate the antigen.
What two types of vessels are coming into the body as an infection passes the lymph nodes?
Multiple afferent vessels and single efferent vessels are coming in
Stimulate immune responses
Where do you usually see lymph nodes?
limbs and joints
What are inside lymph nodes?
Lymphocytes (Immune cells). The system facilitates the lymphocytes in order for them to come into contact with the antigens.
Changes to temperature that is more beneficial for you
fever (general immunity)
Leukocytes (Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils) eat other cells
Phagocytosis (General Immunity)
Can isolate antigens. Swelling restricts movement.
Inflammation (General Immunity)
Hormones like peptides that inherit virus reproduction + enhance the activity of leukocytes
Interferons (General Immunity)
Why is breast milk best?
Antibodies, sterile, has all the nutrients to allow the infant to grow
Newborns receive essential nutrients and antibodies through
Mother produces antibodies that are transferred to the fetus/baby across the placenta. Newborns receive essential nutrients and antibodies through the colostrum (Mammary secretions high in antibodies) for the first three days. After three days, milk comes in (High in antibodies for eighteen months).
natural acquired passive immunity (specific immunity)
Antibiotics. They will provide temporary immunity.
Artificially Acquired Passive Immunity (Specific Immunity Type
Vaccination using a prepared antigen. You can still pick up the disease.
Artificially Acquired Active Immunity (Specific Immunity Type)
Naturally means that you naturally encounter an antigen. T and B cells attack it. Active means T and B cells produce memory cells so that you know how to handle the antigen. Passive- If you can get antibodies (Antibiotics) like pills or injections, then you have immunity from the antigen. Those pills or injections will provide temporary immunity because you will eventually run out of immunity
Naturally Acquired Active Immunity (Specific Immunity Type)
What are some examples of long term immunity shots that we receive?
Tetanus, hepatitis B (3 w/in 6 months), flu shots (You get immunity from it, but there are many strains of it, so next time you get it, you get a different strain)
What happens if you are not exposed to an antigen within six months?
you are experiencing a second exposure, therefore you would experience a secondary response. If you are not exposed to an antigen within six months, then you would not experience a secondary response, therefore that antigen would not be common, so it wouldn't be saved as a memory.
What type of cells provide long term immunity?
What is associated with lymphatic tissue in the digestive tract?
Mucosa of the digestive tract. Mucosa works similar to the way tonsils work.
Why is damage to the spleen crucial?
The spleen is against the wall just inside the ribs. It is somewhat immune to blunt trauma, but if you hit it hard enough then you can rupture it and bleed to death in a few minutes. If it is damaged, it is hard to repair because tissue is very fragile and cannot suture.
Lymphatic organ that provides specific immunity. It filters blood for dead/damaged cells and has a high concentration of leukocytes that are responsible for breaking down and ridding cells. The cells are recycled.
What do thymus hormones cause lymphoid stem cells to develop as?
Anterior/superior (Mostly superior) to the heart. Release thymic hormones. Thymus hormones cause lymphoid stem cells to develop as t cells.
Why might physicians consider removing tonsils?
If there are more than two infections in six months. They can block airflow.
What two tonsils can be removed because of infection?
Palatine tonsils and pharyngeal (Adenoids)
Straight back located in the center of the posterior wall of the nasopharynx. Can't see easily because it's above palet.
There are two on both lateral sides of the palatoglossal arch
Embedded in the base of tongue (Posterior) in tissue
First line of defense. Receptors are sensitive to proteins on surface so they detect antigens and stimulate T cells and plasma B cells.
What do natural killer cells attract?
t cells and leukocytes
What do natural killer cells (NK cells) produce that inhibit virus reproduction in response to a problem?
Immunological surveillance. Actively move through peripheral tissues, checking cell protein profiles. Constantly monitoring all cells in your body. Job is to regularly move through the tissues of every single cell and check them for proper proteins. If something is missing, they detect a problem cell or virus and produce interferons (Peptides) that inhibit virus reproduction in response to a problem. They attract t cells and leukocytes.
Natural Killer Cells (NK cells)
Record antigens and methods on how to make the antibodies for the targets
Memory B Cells
Produce antibodies that bind to the antigen and slow it down, making it harder for them to move
Plasma B Cells
Produced by hormones in the bone marrow and liver
Protein and antigen bind so there is a cluster and they can't move. Lymphocytes can bind to them to destroy them.
Antibody Mediated Immunity
Suppress/stop lymphocyte responses
Suppressor T Cells
Keep a record of how they killed the antigen so there is a quicker response and you know how to handle it if you ever encounter the antigen again
Memory T Cells
Release toxic molecules/enzymes into/onto antigen to kill it or a vacuole can be created to kill it. Either way, chemicals are produced that will kill the antigen.
Cytotoxic T cells
How will the body know which cells are marked to be killed?
First, the helper T cells will identify the antigen. They are marked with a protein so that when other cells come into contact with the protein, they will know it's tagged to be killed.
Identify antigens and mark them with a protein. Foreign cells are marked to be killed.
Helper T cells
Cells created in the thymus that are responsible for cell-mediated immunity.
What are lymphocytes responsible for?
specific immunity against individual pathogens and proteins
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