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Who was the traditional articulation therapy approach developed by?

Charles Van Riper

Who does the traditional approach work well with?

children with few articulation errors that are mostly developmental in nature

What are the guiding principles of the Traditional Articulation Therapy Approach?

- Usually treat one or a few sounds at a time
- Comprised as a series of steps
- Progressively train sound:
from simple isolated sound stage through conversational stage

What lets you know at which linguistic level of complexity to begin?

Baseline data and stimulability testing

What are the five steps in the Traditional Articulation Therapy Approach?

1. Discrimination Training
2. Stimulability
3. Sound Stabilization
4. Generalization
5. Maintenance

Discrimination Training

Child learns to listen and discriminate between error and correct production; ear training

What are the two types of discrimination training?

Clinician-Client and Client-Client

Clinician-Client discrimination training

Clinician produces sounds to see if client can recognize the sound; client can use cards to show which (red/green, happy/sad)

Client-Client discrimination training

Client records themselves producing sounds, listens to recording and holds up the cards when he recognizes the sound


Also known as Sound Elicitation; teaches correct placement and production
(sometimes the hardest part of therapy)

What are some items used during the stimulability step?

-Mirror, diagrams, tissues, gloves
-Video Articulator
-Sound-Level Meter
-Tube from mouth to ear
-FM system
-Tongue Depressor


for oral vs. nasal airflow discrimination

Sound-Level Meter

used if child needs to learn more volume


helps determine where airflow is coming from (especially helpful for lisp)

Tongue Depressor

can be used to manipulate tongue for producing sounds- particularly /k/ and /g/

What are the four stimulability approaches?

1. Auditory Stimulation/Imitation
2. Use of context
3. Moto-Kinesthetic
4. Sound Approximation

Auditory Stiumlation/ Imitation

this approach is the easiest; merely listen/watch, so what I do

Use of context

pair target sound with sounds that make it easier to produce


move articulators with gloved fingers, tongue depressors, etc

Sound Approximation

Shaping; go from a /t/ to an /s/ by holding out the /t/, an /s/ to a /th/, etc

Sound Stabilization

Expanding the productions in which the sound occurs

What are the linguistic levels associated with Sound Stabilization?

-Words (imitated and spontaneous)
-Phrases (imitated and spontaneous)
-Sentences (imitated and spontaneous)
Conversation (structured and unstructured)


occurs when there are no more errors associated with target sound

What is often the toughest part of therapy?


What can the therapist do to try to help generalization occur?

generate more natural practice situations to make production more natural and automatic (use outside the therapy room)

What are four ways a therapist can work on generalization?

Speech Assignments, Speech Buddy, Clear Speech time Periods, Involve Parents

SPeech Assignments

give report on...
read aloud each day... (focus on producing sound correctly)

Speech Buddy

-listens and gives feedback during the day
-comes to therapy to report at times

Clear Speech TIme Periods

specific times each day (start with 10-15 minutes)

Involve Parents

-Have them keep data at home
-Have them report in each session
-Keep them informed
-Involve them in therapy


Progressive check-up of client to see that productions remain correct
1 month, 3 month, 6 month

What are the four things to keep in mind when selecting potential Target Behaviors?

Choose those that:
1. Will have an immediate and socially significant effect on the communication skills of the client
2. Are produced and reinforced at home and in other natural settings
3. Help expand communicative skills (final -s, final -ed)
4. Are linguistically and culturally appropriate for the individual client

What are the criteria for choosing specific target sounds?

Must be:
1. Functional for the child
2. Stimulable
3. Occur in Key Words or Contextual Testing
4. Visible
5. Occur more frequently (r,s,t,n,l,e)
6. Affect intelligibility most
7. Are acquired earlier
8. Part of child's phonemic inventory (has /k/ in final position, but missing in other positions
9. Generalize to others (cognates)- sounds produced the same, but differ in voicing ( /t/, /d/)

What are two approaches that differ in how many sounds to teach at once?

Training Deep Approach, and Training Broad Approach

Training Deep Approach

A select number of sounds is taught intensively (Traditional Approach)

Training Broad Approach

Simultaneous teaching of multiple targets (Phonological Approach) fricative sounds, then another group

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