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What is the country of Côte d'Ivoire best known for?
Seven million Cote d'ivoiriens earn their living in the cocoa industry. How much of the profits reaped from this industry go to the farmer's themselves?
only a tiny fraction - most go to transnational agricultural corps
in 1840 the ____ established a colony in Cote d'Ivoire to enter the ivory trade and build coffee and cocoa plantations
The lucrative coffee and chocolate industry in Cote d'Ivoire fueled
ethnic violence and civil war
of all the systems of stratification and power in a society, which of the following is often considered the most difficult to see clearly and discuss openly
what is true about systems of class and inequality
they create an unequal distribution of a society's resources
archaeological evidence suggests that human evolutionary success relied on
cooperation and sharing
which society is based on the sharing of resources to ensure group success and has relatively low hierarchy and violence
egalitarian societies depend on sharing which of the following in order to ensure group sucess
what does recent archaeological evidence suggest about hierarchy, violence and aggression
each emerged relatively recently in human history
the Inuit of Canada and Alaska and Australian aborigines are examples of
recent food foragers
a strategy for food production relying primarily on the domestication of animals is
The cultivation of plants for subsistence through nonintensive use of land and labor is
An intensive farming strategy for food production involving permanently cultivated land to create a surplus is
The number of people who can be supported by the resources of the surrounding region is called
The Nuer of the southern Sudan herd cattle for a living. They are
The Trobrianders of Papua New Guinea are famous for their cultivation of yams on small plots, which not only serve as foodstuff but are important in determining social status. They are
Balanced, generalized, and negative are forms of
Reciprocity, redistribution, and market exchange are the three main
patterns of exchange
A form of exchange in which accumulated wealth is collected from the members of the group and reallocated in a different pattern is called
increases or decreases the inequality of wealth and resources within a group.
The direct exchange of goods and services, one for the other, without currency or money is
In the community of Hatun Pacha, agriculturalists exchange their crops for sheepherders' meat and yogurt at the Sunday market. This is called
The exchange of resources, goods, and services among those of relatively equal status is called
What do anthropologists call a cultural adaptation to the environment that enables groups to use available resources to satisfy their needs and thrive?
Which primary adaptive strategy includes hunting, fishing, and gathering plants for food?
Both horticulture and agriculture use plants as a source of food. What is the key difference between them?
the level of intensity of the process
What is an important characteristic of agriculture?
it uses labor and technology such as irrigation systems and plows
Which of the following has the greatest carrying capacity?
Where do the remaining food foragers often live today?
in places where there are no other sustainable ways of earning money or producing food
How do simpler subsistence strategies compare to industrial agriculture?
their carrying capacities are more locally limited
What function does reciprocity serve?
it helps build social ties and prestige
What is the primary difference between balanced and generalized reciprocity?
in generalized reciprocity the value of what is exchanged is not carefully calculated
What kind of reciprocity is closing a business deal in which both parties try to come out ahead?
As a child, you may have received an "allowance"—a small amount of money on a regular occasion to use as you wished—from a parent who supported the family with a job. What would an anthropologist call this?
How would an anthropologist characterize a tax refund?
a leveling mechanism
In the United States, what form of economic system is taxation?
What are the three adaptive strategies for food production in nonindustrial societies identified by Yehudi Cohen?
foraging, pastoralism, and horticulture
Intensive industrialized agriculture is characterized by
When Robin Hood and his band of merry men steal from the rich to give to the poor, giving to the poor is an example of
The pickpocket who stole your phone during your vacation engaged in an act of
Your parents have never charged you for groceries and labor for all the meals you consumed at home at their expense. This is an example of
Last week, your roommate washed your dirty mug along with his dishes. Yesterday, he left you exactly one dirty glass of his to wash along with a passive-aggressive note explaining why this was fair. This is an example of
Your office has performed the traditional "Secret Santa" exchange for many years. In this event, every office mate brings a gift worth no more than $20 to be anonymously given at the annual holiday party. This an example of
Market exchange is characterized by the
use of an exchange medium such as the US dollar
What is the best definition of economy?
a cultural adaptation that enables a group of humans to use land, resources, and labor to satisfy their needs
Carrying capacity refers to the number of people who can be supported by the resources of the surrounding region. Which of the following adaptive strategies has a high carrying capacity?
In the late 1400s, China led the world in the production of goods such as silk, porcelain, tea, fruit, drugs, cotton, and weapons, all of which Europeans desired. However, Europe produced few products that the Chinese wanted. Why did this encourage the European conquest and plunder of the Americas?
Due to the resulting trade deficit, European nations needed precious metals to pay for Chinese goods.
The European desire to participate in the world economy of the 1500s led to a frenzied effort among European nations to procure what commodity?
gold and silver
The expansion of sugarcane plantations in South America and the Caribbean proved unsustainable due to a local shortage of what essential commodity?
Why is Haiti considered a significant former colony?
It was the first independent former colony to be ruled by people of African descent.
What major event set the stage for the success of national independence movements outside of Latin America?
World War 2
Development is frequently considered to be a way to spur economic growth and a path toward what?
alleviating poverty and raising living standards
underdevelopment, and that poor countries stay underdeveloped because the global economic system extracts and transfers ________ to developed nations.
How is Wallerstein's world systems theory complicated by globalization?
there is not always geographical isolation between core and peripheral areas
What conditions led to the emergence of dependency theory?
Latin American scholars observed that the global economy was structured to extract resources from less developed nations and transfer them to industrialized nations.
Henry Ford is known for the Model T as well as "Fordism." A central tenet of Fordism was that workers
should earn higher wages and work shorter hours, creating a new pool of consumers with the income and leisure to purchase a car.
What are two key strategies of flexible accumulation?
offshoring and outsourcing
The "triangle trade" that emerged in the 1500s resulted in the exchange of goods, people, wealth, food, disease, and ideas between
Africa, Europe, and the Americas
The European Industrial Revolution of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries relied on colonies for
raw materials, cheap labor, and markets in the colonial territories
Wallerstein's world systems theory divides the nations of the world into
core, periphery, and semiperiphery
Periphery countries serve primarily as sources of
cheap labor and raw materials.
Neoliberalism is associated with
selling public services like water and public transportation to for-profit companies.
What recent trend resulted from wages creeping upward for Chinese workers?
a shift in industrialized production to Bangladesh, Thailand, Vietnam, and Cambodia
The practice by which states extend political, economic, and military power beyond their own borders over an extended period of time to secure access to raw materials, cheap labor, and markets in other countries or regions is called
The colonial-era North American fur trade
disrupted Native American ways of life
What financed Europe's Industrial Revolution?
the profits from triangle trade
By ________, most of Spain's colonies had achieved independence.
Why did national independence succeed after World War II?
European nations devastated by the war could not finance or fight organized resistance in overseas colonies.
Post-World War II economic theories that predicted less-developed countries would follow the same trajectory toward modernization as the industrialized countries are considered
The post-World War II strategy of encouraging wealthy nations to spur global economic growth, alleviate poverty, and raise living standards through strategic investment in the national economies of former colonies is called
the development model
Why did scholars begin to doubt the development model?
Former colonies experienced economic stagnation and became heavily indebted.
Dependency theorists argued that underdeveloped countries should
The idea that poor countries are poor as a result of their relationship to an unbalanced global economic system is
Industrialized former colonial states that dominate the world economic system are
are sources of raw materials, cheap labor, and markets for industrialized countries.
Bangladesh, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Thailand provide cheap labor for export processing facilities, which are owned by transnational corporations. They are
The dominant model of industrial production for much of the twentieth century, based on a social compact between labor, corporations, and government, is referred to as
The increasingly flexible strategies that corporations use to accumulate profits in an era of globalization, enabled by innovative communication and transportation technologies, are called
According to anthropologists of finance, what is the driving force behind the global expansion of capitalism in the twenty-first century?
the circulation of capital
What argument did Keynes advance about how capitalism works best?
Government must rein in the excesses of capitalism and ensure the basic welfare of all citizens.
The position that the free market and free trade rather than the state are the main mechanisms for ensuring economic growth is associated with which theorist?
On what aspects of Adam Smith's perspective on economic growth do today's neoliberal privatization programs build?
his theory of laissez-faire ("leave it alone") capitalism, which calls for a free market, free from government regulation, to create economic growth
Which of these are requirements faced by governments receiving neoliberal structural adjustment loans?
privatize state-owned enterprises
An economic and political worldview that sees the free market as the main mechanism for ensuring growth, with a severely restricted role for government, is known as
Critics of neoliberal policies find them ineffective because
they keep wealthy countries wealthy and poor countries poor
The policies that enabled the high-risk mortgages and financial instruments that caused the 2008 financial crisis reflect a
neoliberal policy of reduced regulation of financial markets
Neoliberalism has emerged as a guiding economic philosophy since the 1970s and has been promoted by large, worldwide institutions since the 1980s. Which of the actions are supported by a neoliberal worldview?
privatization of public services and assets
Which of the following is a reason presented by opponents of neoliberal policies for their rejection of this philosophy?
Neoliberalism fails to avert and alleviate economic crises.
Which of the following is the force that anthropologists of finance suggest is behind the global expansion of capitalism in the twenty-first century?
circulation of capital
Identify the author of the Communist Manifesto and its purpose
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels wrote this pamphlet to urge workers to unite and change their class position.
The residents of Togotala, Mali, cannot produce enough food to meet their daily needs due to the region's harsh climate, which suffers from droughts as well as a three-month rainy season. What is true of this town?
Merchants send remittances to support their families and community
How does Theodore Bestor's study of the Tsukiji fish market illustrate the nature of a global commodity chain?
He traces the hands through which fish pass in a network that connects previously unconnected people and locations
Each day, ________ traders gather in the Tsukiji fish market to auction fish from around the world.
Which of the following is a system of power based on wealth, income, and status that creates an unequal distribution of a society's resources?
Which of these usually results from the unequal distribution of a society's resources within a class system?
Surpluses move steadily upward into the hands of the elite
How do systems of class affect an individual's life chances?
They reduce the chance for upward mobility.
The factories, machines, tools, raw materials, land, and financial capital needed to make things is/are
means of production
A factory owner and a hot dog cart owner are both members of
White-collar office workers and blue-collar laborers are both members of
Computer programmers and coal miners are both members of
An apartment building that can be rented for profit is an example of the
means of production
Amy spent the $20 she received for her birthday on supplies to make lemonade, which she forced her younger brother to sell in front of the house, netting a profit of $5. The original $20 is an example of
The reputation, influence, and deference bestowed on certain people because of their membership in certain groups is
While a shoeshine entrepreneur and a Silicon Valley venture capitalist are both bourgeois, their means of making a living differ in
An individual's opportunities to improve quality of life and realize life goals is/are
The self-perceptions, sensibilities, and tastes developed over a lifetime that shape one's conceptions of the world and where one fits in it is
Why is Karl Marx considered an important theorist in the study of class?
He focused on capitalism as it pertained to workers and inequality
Karl Marx examined social inequality by distinguishing between which two distinct classes of people?
bourgeoisie and proletariat
According to Karl Marx, the bourgeoisie consisted of a capitalist class of individuals who owned what part of society?
means of production
What did Karl Marx call the group of people who lacked land and tools and sold their labor?
According to Karl Marx, how do capitalists profit by extracting surplus labor value from workers?
The bourgeoisie profit from how much more the sale price is than the production costs.
According to Karl Marx, why were the proletariat unable to develop a political awareness of their class position while the bourgeoisie were able to do so?
The proletariat were continually occupied with the struggle to make ends meet, while the bourgeoisie developed ways to keep the proletariat divided.
What might Max Weber suggest is the primary difference between a lawyer in the United States and the self-made millionaire of a U.S.-based manufacturing company?
The lawyer has high prestige by virtue of occupation, while the self-made millionaire has high wealth.
Your best friend, who has recently graduated with honors from Harvard University, arrives at a party you are hosting. Despite being a total stranger to all of the guests, your friend is surrounded almost constantly by others throughout the entire evening. How would a theorist like Max Weber analyze this situation?
Your friend enjoys high prestige due primarily to the affiliation with a high-prestige university.
What is the movement, both upward and downward, of one's class position in a society?
Pierre Bourdieu investigated the relationship between class, culture, and power by studying schools in France with the expectation of finding that social mobility was the result of meritocracy. What did he discover instead?
Social relations were reproduced across generations.
Carmen's parents enroll her in AP Honors French, where the content of the class is more academically demanding than the general French class. They also spend their summer vacation in France and hire a tutor to help Carmen study for the AP Honors French test. Carmen receives high marks and praise from her teachers. What aspect of Pierre Bourdieu's work is exemplified here?
Why might Pierre Bourdieu have decided to examine his theory of social mobility—the interrelationships between culture, class, and power—in the French school system as opposed to, say, the workplace of adults?
Schools offered the chance to look across multiple generations
Hayk purchases the most expensive tier membership to the Museum of Modern Art. He developed an appreciation for art when his parents took him to museums as a child. He moves with ease, confidence, and a sense of entitlement through the collections with other well-heeled art enthusiasts during the special members' viewings. How would Pierre Bourdieu describe this young man's attitudes and behaviors with respect to art?
According to Max Weber, the exercise of state power through police and taxation
reproduces class stratification
After golf, the wealthy housewives gossip about their absent friend's son who had to go to his "safety school"—a state college—instead of the Ivy League universities that accepted their children. The fact that this was considered scandalous reflects how
people of the same social class share similar life chances
In many stratified societies across the world, ________ is considered the key to upward mobility.
The knowledge, habits, and tastes learned from parents and family that individuals can use to gain access to scarce and valuable resources in society are part of
Which of the following consists of wages earned from work, plus dividends and interest on investments along with rents and royalties?
How do distributions of income and wealth reveal the way power is distributed in a society?
Income and wealth determine an individual's access to resources such as health care.
What is the total value of what someone owns, including stocks, bonds, and real estate, minus any debt?
Anthropologists have challenged the "culture of poverty" theory, arguing that poverty is a structural problem that results from
dysfunctional aspects of the entire economic system
Pem Davidson Buck's research in Kentucky analyzes
the intersection of class, race, and gender.
"Sweat is meant to trickle up" refers to
how elites profit from the labor of poor white workers.
Huiyan works in the nonprofit sector, where she does not make much but loves her job. When her grandfather died, she inherited his real estate empire. She is
low income but wealthy
Unlike the fijos, the ambulantes in Daniel Goldstein's study
are harassed by the police.
Daniel Goldstein argues that the worldwide growth in the informal economy is due to
the conditions created by the state that benefit the state
Anthropologists view poverty as a result of
a structural economic problem.
The "culture of poverty" theory
blames the victims for something caused by large economic processes.
Judith Goode and Jeff Maskovsky trace the roots of contemporary poverty to
the impact of global economic processes on the nation's economy.
Which person in Cochabamba, Bolivia, works in the informal economy?
Lola sells bananas to tourists from a cart attached to her bicycle.
In Worked to the Bone: Race, Class, Power, and Privilege in Kentucky(2001), anthropologist Pem Davidson Buck analyzes the experiences of poor whites in Kentucky. She describes a phenomenon she calls "sweat that trickles up" where the surplus value of these workers' labor benefits the elite. Which of following is a social factor that shapes the experiences of poor whites in Kentucky?
the construction of race through slavery, sharecropping, and Jim Crow legislation
What is typically true about the Chinese immigrants who enter the United States through New York as restaurant workers?
They frequently suffer physical and emotional stress as underpaid employees working long hours.
After their city was bombed, the surviving family members, now homeless, fled in fear for their lives. Their motives for leaving are examples of
You decide to move to Tokyo, Japan, because you were offered the opportunity to make a fantastic salary as an English teacher. This opportunity is an example of a
Your dream is to live in Paris. Unfortunately, you do not speak French or have a work visa, so you can only stay 90 days or until you run out of money, whichever comes first. Your language and immigration status are examples of
A man from rural El Salvador came to the United States in search of work in the construction industry. He is an example of a
Which of the following is a success the global economy has achieved in the past sixty years?
Infant mortality rates have dropped by more than 60 percent
Industrialized agriculture has dramatically increased the planet's overall food supply. Why do more than three million children still die of malnutrition each year?
Global inequality continues to be a problem.
After her husband's murder, fearing her young son would be recruited into the conflict between the military and insurgents, Juana moved with her children to the capital, where violence against civilians was less likely. This family's situation is an example of
Both internally displaced people and refugees
are forced to move due to persecution, violence, or natural or human-made disasters.
Arjun drew on connections from his alumni network from the prestigious Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IITB) to get a job that sponsored his work visa in a Silicon Valley firm. What helped him secure his
Many ________ from India are economists, doctors, nurses, engineers, or business executives.
have existed for thousands of years
Legal and illegal labor migrants
provide many of the foods, goods, and services we consume daily.
The Fuzhounese who migrate to work in Chinese restaurants in the United States are
Job opportunities, educational opportunities, and access to health care as well as poverty, famine, war, disease, and religious oppression are different forces that lead to a decision to migrate. What are the two terms used by anthropologists to describe these forces that lead to migration?
Forces that spur migration from the country of origin and draw immigrants to a particular new destination country are
pushes and pulls
What is one reason that refugees are forced to leave their communities
People migrate for many reasons, including to take advantage of economic opportunities. What term describes this kind of reason to migrate?
The factors that enable or inhibit migration are
bridges and barriers
What are the economic resources that are transferred from migrants to family members or institutions in their country of origin called?
About how many people have migrated out of the towns and villages near Fuzhou, China?
50-70 percent of many towns and villages
What would a transnational immigrant do once established in their new country?
plan Skype dates with the family back home to tell them about their new friends
What are migrants who actively maintain social, economic, political, and religious ties with people in different countries?
What do internal migrants do?
move within their own national borders
What is one of the primary motivations for labor immigrants?
better wages than they find in other countries
What is one of the prices that guest workers usually must pay in order to find work in other countries?
denial of long-term rights and privileges
Professional immigrants are
university-trained professionals who seek better professional opportunities abroad.
The Malian migrants to Brazzaville in the Republic of Congo of Bruce Whitehouse's study
are treated like outsiders, segregated by religion and language.
How do anthropologists define refugees?
people who have been forced to move beyond their national borders due to natural disasters, political or religious persecution, or violence
Migrants often send economic resources back to their countries of origin. What role do these resources play?
supporting families and stimulating economic growth in local (origin) communities
People who participate in programs that offer a temporary right to work but have limited long-term rights and privileges are called
What term describes people who have been forced to migrate because of violence, religious persecution, or disasters but stay within their own countries?
internally displaced persons
Nawal studied medicine at her university in Egypt. Although she can work as a doctor in Egypt, she is enticed by the high wages and opportunities offered in other countries. What term refers to the phenomenon of many skilled professionals like Nawal leaving their country of origin?
Gobind does not like his job in New Delhi, so he applies to a master's program in the United States. After graduating, he is hired by a company in New York City. These educational and employment opportunities can be characterized as
factors that pulled Gobind to the United States
Although globalization has produced increased flows of money, information, and goods, barriers to the flow of people are difficult to overcome. What is one of the principal barriers that migrants must overcome?
a high degree of regulation and immigration inspectors at borders
Push and pull factors shape migration patterns around the world as migrants are forced to leave their home countries and choose to settle in certain countries. Which of the following examples is a push factor?
Rising sea levels and water temperature are caused by
If, as predicted, sea levels in the Indian Ocean rise by six feet by the year 2100,
the Maldives will disappear under water.
Greta Thunberg inspired an international student movement by
skipping school every Friday to demonstrate
What percentage of the world's population lives in low-lying coastal areas?
The study of the relations between humans and the environment is called
Alysse observes how orangutans and humans affect one another through their impacts on forest ecology. She is a(n)
Environmental anthropologists challenge Western philosophy's binary way of looking at the distinction between
human beings and nature
Bruno Latour recommends that we focus on which part of our environment?
the area several miles above and below Earth's surface.
The current historical era in which human activity is reshaping the planet in permanent ways is called
The sleepy Russian town of Belushya Guba declared a state of emergency when it was overrun by polar bears. This species had never ventured into the town until climate change melted the sea ice, which comprised much of the bears' primary hunting and migration routes. The plight of the bears and the town exemplifies the changes characteristic of
Drought, extreme poverty, extinction, and pollution of air and water are
caused by the spread of global capitalism and consumerism
Approximately when did the Anthropocene begin?
100 years ago
The most susceptible to environmental vulnerability are
the people who have benefited the least from globalization.
The residents of the South Pacific island called Ocean Island
were forcibly relocated.
When did the British remove the Banaba people?
after World War II
Katerina Teaiwa's deeply personal story
demonstrates a case of indigenous dispossession and cultural resilience.
Earth-changing transformation and information infrastructure projects such as canals, ports, railroads, satellites, and undersea telephone cables
enable the processes of globalization to occur
Ashley Carse's research focuses on
how the Panama Canal affects the lives of local communities.
Damming the Chagres river basin to create the Panama Canal watershed
forced residents of the submerged towns to move.
In Panama, the water for the newly constructed water system supporting the canal was replenished by
Clearing the rain forest for poor, landless farmers to use
was unacceptable to the Canal Administration, so the government switched from development to conservation.
Ashley Carse stresses that the rain forest enables the ________ to exist.
Laura Ogden collected the oral histories of gladesmen in South Florida to
construct an ecological history of the Everglades
President Mohamed Nasheed has taken a leading role in environmental efforts. What pledge did he make regarding the Maldives?
to make the Maldives the first carbon-neutral country
Ethnographic research designed to consider the interactions of all species living on the planet and see the world from a more than human perspective is called
Multispecies ethnography attempts to
reimagine human beings as part of the ecosystems that we affect and that affect us.
Bianca is doing participant observation in order to learn more about the relationships between humans and working dogs, such as dogs that help herd, hunt, or police. Her study is an example of
Eduardo Kohn's research in the Ecuadoran rain forest looks at ecological relationships between
humans, spirits, animals, and plants
The Runa taught Eduardo Kohn to see himself through the eyes of a(n)
Julie Cruikshank studies indigenous knowledge and oral histories in order to
understand indigenous perspectives on the interrelatedness of humans and glaciers.
The title of Stefan Helmreich's book Alien Ocean refers to
the scientists who explore the ocean's microbial ecology
Which is the anthropological category promoted by Donna Haraway as a framework for interpreting the environment?
Based on Eduardo Kohn's ethnography, How Forests Think (2013), which is a reasonable statement for multispecies ethnography?
investigate the ecological relationships between people and plants
Hurricane Katrina had a catastrophic effect on New Orleans
despite the city's wealth, preparedness, and the effectiveness of its response.
Vanessa Agard-Jones's research in Martinique examines the relationship between
environmental estrogens and intersex births
a carcinogenic, hormone-altering pesticide
is a time when people perform sexuality and gender transgression.
Which statement is true of anthropologist Melissa Checker?
She believes research can be applied, not just extracted for informational purposes.
Paige West's research in Papua New Guinea
studies attempts at community-based conservation
The Crater Mountain Wildlife Management Area (CMWMA) is in
Papua New Guinea.
The Gimi had hoped that foreign nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) would
provide social services such as schools, health services, and transportation
Groups like the Research and Conservation Foundation prioritize
Tours of remote natural environments designed to support local communities and their conservation efforts are
Veronica Davidov and her classmate Ariana participated in
Veronica Davidov found that ecotourists assume
ecotourism helps to save the planet
Why are indigenous villages and ecotourism sites often close to oil extraction sites?
The oil industry cuts roads through dense forest, making ecotourism possible.
What did Ariana find when she returned to the rain forest to visit her Kichwa friends?
The village was abandoned.
In contrast to the tourist fantasies, Veronica Davidov found the Kichwa people to be
competent but marginalized people who have navigated forces of global capitalism for over a century.
Many international travelers visit Costa Rica for its volcanos, beaches, and biodiversity reserves, some of which are listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, as well as its environmentally sustainable practices. These tourists are
The displacement and pacification of indigenous peoples and expropriation of their lands and resources is called
The passage of the Indian Removal Act (1830) resulted in the Trail of Tears, the forced dispossession and relocation of approximately 60,000 Native Americans from their ancestral homelands in the southeastern United States to areas west of the Mississippi River, so that white settlers could have their land. This is an example of
About what proportion of the world's population suffers from food insecurity?
What is true about the rural peasants who produce much of the world's food supply?
They work the land themselves, relying on the labor of family or other group members.
Tribal members and their allies gathered at the Standing Rock Sioux Reservation to protest
the Dakota Access Pipeline (DAPL).
What was the main point of the protests at the Standing Rock Sioux reservation?
to protect indigenous rights, clean water supplies, and Native American burial grounds
Anne Spice notes that infrastructure such as oil pipelines has been a tool of
Jaskiran Dhillon links anti-pipeline resistance like that at Standing Rock with
historical struggles for indigenous rights and environmental protections.
Which statement is part of the Gimi worldview?
People and nature interrelate and influence one another.
Which statement is associated with industrial agriculture and livestock production?
produces 25 percent of the global greenhouse emissions
What is driving the expansion of the human ecological footprint?
College students can engage environmental issues on personal and institutional levels. Which is an example of institutional engagement?
Adriana and her friends campaign for a politician who supports sustainability efforts.
In Bangladesh, over 1,000 youth marched more than 100 miles to protest the construction of coal-fired power plants. What does this demonstrate?
people taking political action to resist climate change
Power, the ability or potential to bring about change through action or influence, is
embedded in all human relationships.
What do the Sundarbans campaign in Bangladesh and the Fossil Free movement at Swarthmore College have in common?
Both took action to halt and reverse climate change and global warming.
The ability or potential to bring about change through action or influence is
A mufti is
an Islamic legal scholar and interpreter of Islamic law
Why did students at Swarthmore College occupy a university administration building during spring 2016?
to push for divestment from fossil fuels of the school's endowment funds
When did the subfield of political anthropology emerge?fter World War I
after World War II
From the late 1800s until the 1960s, anthropological studies of politics and power focused on
contemporary hunter-gatherer groups, pastoralists, and horticulturalists.
What is the average size of a band?
20 to several hundred individuals
What does the size of a band depend on?
hunting and ritual cycles as well as conflict and alliances
A decentralized political authority in which decisions are made by consensus is a characteristic of a
The political system with the least stratification is a
Richard, who is an excellent graduate student but an incompetent hunter, was relieved to find that the Ju/'hoansi men share the spoils of their hunt with all who live with them, including guests. Richard is conducting participant observation with a
Where do most remaining foragers live?
remote areas such as rain forests, arctic tundra, and deserts
Christopher Boehm argues that the most economically efficient strategy is
sharing scant resources
The Bhils are an egalitarian Indian Adivasi ethnic group whose leadership is based on kinship and personality. They are a
Ancient Hawaiian society was based on a strict caste system ruled over by a political specialist to whom commoners paid tribute. They were a
A tribe is sometimes referred to as a(n)
What strategy did hunter-gatherer communities develop to enhance cooperation, generosity, and the sharing of resources?
The Hadza are a small hunter-gatherer group in Tanzania, who have no tribal or governing hierarchy. They are
What do anthropologists call a small, kinship-based group of foragers who move around in a particular territory?
Small, kin-based groups that hunt and gather over a particular territory and constantly break up and reform in response to conflicts are referred to as
An indigenous group with its own set of loyalties and leaders that lives, to some extent, outside the control of a centralized authoritative state is a
Anthropologists have observed that tribal leaders build and maintain power through
An autonomous political unit composed of a number of villages or communities under the permanent control of a paramount chief is a
In Elman Service's evolutionary typology, a political system that represents a stage between the simpler political structure of the tribe and the complex structure of the state is the
Earlier anthropological analysis focused on isolated, small-scale human groups. Anthropologists now understand that all bands, tribes, and chiefdoms must function
within the influence of the state.
The forest-dwelling Ogiek, who live outside the direct control of the government of Kenya, formed a nongovernmental organization (NGO) to seek aid in protecting their rights to their land and way of life. They might be known as what kind of group?
Since the late 1800s, anthropologists studying politics and power focused on small-scale societies in remote locations around the world. In the twentieth century, another specialization, political anthropology, emerged in response to various events. Which is a characteristic of the beginnings of political anthropology?
Early political anthropology developed after World War II.
Micronesia is an archipelago of islands in the South Pacific that is drastically affected by the weather patterns in the region. With regularity, storms destroy their homes and droughts threaten their crops, yet Micronesians continue to adjust to their difficult environment. Which of the following is a way in which Micronesian culture has adapted to help people survive in their fluctuating climate?
Micronesians place a high importance on reciprocity and duty
Early political anthropologists created typologies to organize political systems. Although they are infrequently used today, these typologies shaped a generation of anthropological thinking about political systems. Which of the following is a reason why political typologies are problematic?
Political typologies are not reliable representations of past political structures
According to Max Weber, what is the fundamental characteristic of the modern state?
It establishes a monopoly on the legitimate use of force within a territory.
In which century did the modern Western state emerge?
When Marta was growing up, her parents, religious leaders, school lessons, favorite books, and television shows all taught her that good people who work hard get what they deserve. As an adult, she supports political parties and policies that frame the poor as lazy freeloaders. This is an example of
An autonomous regional political structure with a central government that is authorized to make laws and use political, economic, and military force to maintain order and defend its territory is referred to as a
Which political structure has a central government that exercises political, military, and economic control of its territory?
Why does the author say that the image of the state as fixed, cohesive, and coherent is an illusion?
Because states are constantly reshaped by new leaders and legislation and through their interactions
In 1871, hundreds of small monarchies were united to form the nation-state of Germany. After World War I, it became the Weimar Republic until the Nazis came to power in 1933. After World War II, Germany was divided into East and West, then reunited at the end of the Cold War. What characteristic of the state do these changes demonstrate?
They are uniquely constructed and constantly reshaped.
The origin, construction, and organization of states are frequently the focus of which branch of anthropology?
What is true of most states today?
They did not exist prior to World War II.
The ability of a dominant group to create consent and agreement within a population without the use or threat of force is called
In addition to violence, the Nazi regime used film, newspapers, radio programs, textbooks, youth groups, and even children's comic books to influence the populace to see Nazi actions and programs as necessary and reasonable. This kind of consensus an example of
The colorful fireworks, parades, and various festivities of Fourth of July celebrations in the United States reinforce feelings of
The state reinforces its ability to create consent and agreement about what is normal and appropriate by promoting what kinds of intense feelings?
Adolf Hitler blamed ethnic minorities for the country's problems and celebrated "ethnically German" people as superior. This made persecuting minorities and expanding German dominance over Europe seem reasonable. This feeling of belonging and superiority is called
Anthropologists link the origins of the state to the rise of
European colonial forces created states and territories
to suit their own economic and political objectives
Networks based on kinship, religion, and/or ethnicity
are undermined by the primary allegiance to the centralized state.
The spatialization of the state is produced
Through everyday bureaucratic acts of governance.
The perception that the state fills a particular space, encompasses all aspects of culture, and stands above all other elements of the society is the state's
fluid, contested narrative.
One way that states reinforce hegemony is through
In addition to theories and perspectives shared with political scientists and sociologists, political anthropologists also take a distinctive perspective when studying contemporary politics. Which of the following is a distinctive approach that political anthropologists take?
Political anthropologists focus on the processes of the state rather than the institutions.
Anthropologists Akhil Gupta and James Ferguson describe one dynamic of the state as "vertical encompassment." What do they mean by using this term to describe the state?
the overarching awareness of the state's perpetual presence
Neoliberal economic policies
challenge state sovereignty.
The right of the state to maintain self-determination within its borders is known as
Local ________ may join forces with transnational movements to transform local problems into global projects.
civil society organizations
A group of people creates an organization that is independent of the state to challenge inequities and assert their political rights to resources and recognition within their state. What is this type of organization called?
civil society organizations
The political-economic context in which international financial institutions pressure states to adopt neoliberal economic policies has produced a flourishing of
Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, and World Vision are examples of
A local nongovernmental organization (NGO) that challenges state policies and uneven development and advocates for resources and opportunities for members of its local communities is known as what?
a civil society organization
Which political scenario as promoting neoliberal economics?
Private sector, nongovernmental groups provide education and social services.
What is it called when a civil society prepares for war by producing weapons and glorifying war?
Adolf Hitler glorified German domination while expanding the military and promoting paramilitary organizations such as the Hitler Youth. This an example of
What is one of the arguments given to support the idea that humans are naturally violent?
Violence is genetically ingrained in all primates
What have recent studies of nonhuman primates revealed about the idea that violence is endemic to all primates?
Some primates undergo a cycle of reconciliation rather than distancing after conflict occurs.
What surprising discovery did Carolyn Nordstrom make in her study of war and violence in Mozambique?
People can resist political violence in the ways they attend to the daily matters of their community.
In her article, "Warfare Is Only an Invention—Not a Biological Necessity," how did Margaret Mead support her argument that war is a cultural invention?
She presented ethnographic examples of groups who do not go to war to settle disputes.
During World War II, Walt Disney Productions distributed pro-American propaganda cartoons featuring Donald Duck for the U.S. government to increase support for the war. This is an example of
Catherine Lutz warns that, if left unchecked, militarization can
shape other cultural institutions to its own ends.
How did Margaret Mead explain the origins of human violence?
It is a cultural institution
Frans de Waal's review of studies of different primates
challenges the myth that violent impulses are deeply ingrained in primate nature.
use sex to resolve conflict
According to Carol Nordstrom, modern warfare
is embedded in and enabled by a global system of war making.
Susan Shepler found a discrepancy between the beliefs and moral expectations of international aid agencies and those of local Sierra Leoneans with respect to
The "architects of war"
engage in the battle from a distance
Who funds war?
multitrillion dollar international financial networks
Anthropologist Carolyn Nordstrom studied Mozambique during the late 1980s and early 1990s, during and directly after the Mozambican Civil War. She noted the widespread use of "terror warfare" used by both guerilla and governmental soldiers. Which of the following is the correct definition of terror warfare?
Terror warfare is the destruction and disruption of all aspects of civilian life.
Which of the following statements about child soldiers in Sierra Leone is a belief of Sierra Leoneans?
Children may be fostered by other families, for the sake of gaining valuable knowledge and skills.
The potential power of a person or a group to contest and change norms, values, institutions, and structures of power is
In 1989, millions of Chinese citizens stood up to their government in Tiananmen Square, which resulted in martial law and numerous deaths. What would an anthropologist suggest the Tiananmen Square protestors were doing?
exercising their agency
Even very powerful institutions do not completely dominate people's lives and thinking. Individuals and groups with relatively little power can contest powerful institutions, such as the state, because
systems of power, including the state, are never absolute
Marc Edelman's study of the response of rural peasants in Costa Rica to the economic and political upheavals caused by civil war and increased debt demonstrate what aspect of human response to the state?
Collective group actions in response to uneven development, inequality, and injustice that seek to build institutional networks to transform cultural patterns and government policies are referred to as
When farmers in Costa Rica marched, blocked streets, and held demonstrations to protest inequality and injustice, what were they participating in?
a social movement
The civil rights movement held protests, sit-ins, boycotts, and marches, eventually resulting in the Civil Rights Act, which outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. This is an example of
a social movement
What is the method by which social movements create shared meanings and definitions that motivate and justify collective action?
a framing process
The Occupy Wall Street movement was able to gain support and contribute to a shift in public discourse by focusing on inequality with the motto "We are the 99 percent." This is an example of
Some societies use different systems to settle issues that might normally go to the state court system. What are these systems known as?
alternative legal structures
What is a key difference between the fatwa and the court system in Egypt?
Both the individual and the mufti share responsibility for the outcome.
In Egypt, people view the decisions of the official Egyptian personal status courts
with great suspicion
The Fatwa Council in Egypt is an example of
an alternative legal structure
Outraged by the number of potholes on Elm Street, your neighbor, Mr. Perkins, called his representative daily until they were fixed. His victory is an outcome of an individual exercising his
A fraternity brother stole a valuable piece of jewelry during a sorority rush party. The other members of the fraternity do not want to get in trouble, so they do not turn him over to the police or university. However, they cannot permit such a violation of their values and norms. Their solution is to submit the offender to their own tribunal and devise a fitting punishment that reassures the community. This is an example of
an alternative legal structure
The DREAMers, the Tea Party, and the Animal Liberation Movement have very different goals, but they are all
The Al Azhar Fatwa Council
is one of the oldest and most established centers of Islamic authority.
In his examination of the Occupy movement, what did Jeffrey Juris discover to be key to the movement's success?
the interplay between the virtual and the physical
What effect did the U.S. Food for Peace program have in Costa Rica?
Cheaper food from subsidized U.S. farmers drove local farmers out of business.
In Costa Rica, structural adjustment programs
created a strong economy and food self-sufficiency.
According to Marc Edelman, how successful were Costa Rican peasants' collective efforts to fight neoliberal policies?
They softened the harshest effects of the policies.
Jeff Juris's study of Occupy Boston found that
digital media enabled new patterns of protest
Anthropologist David Vine studies the effects of U.S. militarization on the U.S. population as well as the effectiveness of military bases abroad. Which statement describes the effectiveness of U.S. military bases?
U.S. military bases and military actions are ineffective ways of solving international problems.
Anthropologists typically conduct fieldwork as participant oberservers, living and coexisting with the people they study. Why is it that anthropologists believe religion can also be successfully studied in this manner
Religion is lived out in a community of people
On what basis do people often make sense of the world, reach decisions, and organize their lives?
their religious beliefs
What is one of the primary reasons why the study of religion in anthropology is difficult?
There is a wide range of local religious expression
Whether studying a small temple in a remote village or the most famous Catholic cathedral in Rome, anthropologists try to convey each religion's sense of moral order, dynamic public expressions, and
interactions with other systems of meaning and power
Anthropologists are primarily interested in which aspect of religion?
the everyday religious practices of people in their local communities
Anthropological research illustrates that people make a religious tradition come alive in their own context through local expressions and adaptations. Which of the following is an example of this?
In India, Hindu and Muslim pilgrim both seek the healing powers of the Husain Tekri shrine.
Which of the following is a person who sacrifices their life for the sake of their religion?
Which of the following is an individual considered exceptionally close to God, who is then exalted after death?
The text describes the Muslim saint shrine of Husain Tekri and the rituals that pilgrims to this shrine participate in to venerate this long-deceased Muslim martyr. What is one of the characteristics of this particular example that demonstrates the local adaptation and flexibility of religious practice?
pilgrims from a variety of different faiths, not just Muslim
The text describes the Muslim saint shrine of Husain Tekri and how people of many different faiths come to the shrine for healing rituals. The people traveling to the shrine are
making a pilgrimage
In Japan, the second Monday of January is a national Coming of Age Day. Young people who have turned twenty years old in the past year wear traditional clothing, attend ceremonies in local government offices, and celebrate at parties afterward. Coming of Age Day is an example of
a rite of passage.
French sociologist Émile Durkheim developed the notion of a fundamental dichotomy between which of the following sets of ideas that has been used by anthropologists in examining religion?
sacred and profane
In Catholic religious services, the priest often intones the liturgy in Latin, which helps to preserve the continuity of both the religion and the service. In Durkheim's view, this might be considered a form of
The upheaval brought about by the Industrial Revolution led to profound changes in the nature of production and labor as well as the displacement of people as they sought out ways to make a living in the face of these changes. When French sociologist Émile Durkheim observed all of this, what did he call it?
Émile Durkheim argued that which of the following was key to allowing a society to regenerate its sense of social solidarity?
An anthropologist studying football in the United States might find that taboos, sacred objects, and ________ are in almost constant use.
In 1931, anthropologist Audrey Richards documented the chisunguritual, performed by the Bemba people in Zambia. What is this women-only ritual that centers on menstruation and marriage an example of in anthropology?
a rite of passage
In many cultures, a woman's first menstruation is seen as a powerful marker of womanhood and is frequently marked by ritual. In some cases, the young woman is separated from the larger social cohort and left in a state of isolation that may provide a time for reflection. According to anthropologist Victor Turner, what is this stage in the ritual process called?
Which of the following, according to Victor Turner, is the first stage of a rite of passage that involves the physical, psychological, or symbolic removal from the daily activities of the group?
What term is used by Victor Turner to identify the final stage of a rite of passage that involves the return of the individual to the everyday life of the community?
Your college experience leads eventually to your graduation, a ritual process that ushers you into the "real world" where you are expected to find a job and be a productive member of the larger society. In the model of ritual that Victor Turner describes, what does this entirety of your experience, including the graduation ceremony itself, help to promote?
German political philosopher Karl Marx called which of the following "the opium of the people"?
Karl Marx argued that which of the following played a key role in keeping the working poor from engaging in revolutionary social change that he believed was necessary to improve their situation?
Anthropologist Marvin Harris suggested that human culture is a response to the practical problems of earthly existence, arguing that society is shaped by
Which of the following theories contends that religious practices have likely developed in response to very practical problems as people sought to adapt to the natural environment?
Which of the following theorists believed that ideas can be just as powerful as economics in shaping society?
According to Max Weber, the values of self-denial and self-discipline provided the ethic necessary for
capitalism to flourish.
When Max Weber envisioned an evolution of rationalization in religion, what did he predict as the final stage?
rational religion based on legal codes of conduct
What do anthropologists call a part-time religious practitioner with special abilities to connect individuals with supernatural powers or beings?
In her South Korean community, Seo-yun acts as an intermediary between spirits or gods and the human world through rituals, songs, and ancestor worship. Which term best describes Seo-yun?
Some followers of the Voodoo religion in Louisiana use figurines. They pin a person's picture or name to the figure, which represents that person's spirit, in order to bless or curse them. How would an anthropologist most likely categorize this practice?
Which of the following is considered a type of magic that involves performances that reproduce the desired result?
Most of us routinely trim our fingernails. The cuttings are tossed into the wastebasket and we don't usually give it much thought. However, believers of ________ would take special precautions with their fingernail clippings, which could be used to cast a spell on them.
E. E. Evans-Pritchard conducted fieldwork among the Azande and rebuffed Max Weber's earlier assertion that science and modernization would lead to the decline of magic. What was a key element of magic highlighted by Evans-Pritchard's work?
Magic is rational
What did anthropologist E. E. Evans-Pritchard, who worked among the Azande people, consider to be an integral part of their religious system?
In his work with the Azande people, E. E. Evans-Pritchard found that which of the following individuals are formally taught the knowledge of rituals and medicines and use that knowledge to thwart the work of witches?
In order to examine the role of religion in community life in Niger, West Africa, anthropologist Paul Stoller apprenticed with which of the following religious specialists?
What did anthropologist George Gmelch note about baseball as an activity?
It was rife with magic.
George Gmelch discovered that baseball players who use a particular ritual, such as touching the bill of their cap every time they are up to bat, believe that good magic
The phenomenal sales of epic works of fiction such as Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien center on magic as a real force in society. In Tolkien's work, the object of interest is a ring that gives the wearer great power. What kind of magic is Tolkien using in his fiction in regard to this particular object?
The Grateful Dead toured the country until the death of Jerry Garcia, the band's founder. They attracted a huge and devoted fan base, many of whom traveled long distances to see the band perform and partake of the hallucinogens commonly found at the concerts. What kind of religious practice might an anthropologist call such activity?
Kurt Cobain, the deceased front man of the famed 1990s grunge band Nirvana, famously wore a green cardigan at a 1993 performance. Since that concert, the cardigan has never been washed and still has its original stains. It just sold at auction for $334,000. The cardigan was not originally expensive. The value that this object now has is an example of what sort of magic?
Spanish conquistadors and missionaries were struck by the Aztecs' use of human sacrifice and cannibalism in some of their religious ceremonies. One anthropologist argued that these rituals developed because there were not enough protein sources in the Valley of Mexico and therefore protein from humans filled the void. This explanation is an example of what theory of religion?
Émile Durkheim understood religion as a social process that helped to create social solidarity, cohesion, and stability. He feared that the absence of religion, a powerful tool of creating social solidarity, would lead people to feel a greater degree of alienation. He believed that this helped explain the rise of which of the following in late nineteenth-century France?
Which of the following did Émile Durkheim believe could play a key role in addressing anomie in society, thus reducing the number of suicides?
religion and ritual
What is the name anthropologists give to a ritual in which a person enters the ritual as one category of person in society and through the ritual is transformed into a new category of person?
rite of passage
Which of the following is a scenario that most accurately represents sociologist Émile Durkheim's explanation of how religion combats anomie?
Through worship and reading sacred texts, a congregation is reminded of their duty to help others in their community.
Anthropologist Clifford Geertz suggests that religion is essentially a system of ideas surrounded by powerful
According to Talal Asad, how did the cross, the Torah, and the cow gained their symbolic power through
complex historical and social developments.