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Cells that make tooth enamel.

Cribra orbitalia

Porosity in the eye orbits due to anemia caused by an iron-deficient diet, parasitic infection, or genetic disease.

Dental caries

A disease process that creates demineralized areas in dental tissues, leading to cavities; demineralization is caused by acids produced by bacteria that metabolize carbohydrates in dental plaque.


The process of converting wild animals or wild plants into forms that humans can care for and cultivate.

Heme iron

Iron; found in red meat, fish, and poultry; that the body absorbs efficiently.

Iron deficiency anemia

A condition in which the blood has insufficient iron; may be caused by diet, poor iron absorption, parasitic infection, and severe blood loss.

Masticatory-functional hypothesis

The hypothesis that craniofacial shape change during the Holocene was related to the consumption of softer foods.


The late Pleistocene/early Holocene culture, during which humans domesticated plants and animals.

Nonheme iron

Iron;found in lentils and beans;that is less efficiently absorbed by the body than is heme iron.


Degenerative changes of the joints caused by a variety of factors, especially physical activity and mechanical stress.

Periosteal reaction

Inflammatory response of a bone's outer covering due to bacterial infection or to trauma.

Porotic hyperostosis

Expansion and porosity of cranial bones due to anemia caused by an iron-deficient diet, parasitic infection, or genetic disease.


Cereal grains, such as rice, corn, and wheat, that make up a substantial portion of the human population's diet today.


A group of related diseases (venereal syphilis, yaws, endemic syphilis) caused by the bacteria Treponema, which causes pathological changes most often to the cranium and tibiae.

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