How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

99 terms

Psych 306 test 1

What is child development?
An area of study devoted to understanding constancy and change from conception through adolescence. Its goal is to describe and identity factors that influence the consistencies and changes in young people during the first two decades of life.
In what ways is child development considered an applied and interdisciplinary study?
Child development is considered an applied study. It has a practical purpose. Research about development, stimulated by social pressures, can better the lives of children.
The information about child development is interdisciplinary. It has grown through many fields. Psychology, sociology, anthropology, biology and neuroscience joining with education, family studies, medicine, public health and social service.
What are the three domains in which child development is divided into?
Physical, cognitive, emotional/social. Each domain influences and it influenced by the others.
E.g., new motor capacities in infants (physical) contribute to their understanding of their surroundings (cognitive); when babies think and act more competently, adults stimulate them with more games and language and expressions of delight (emotional/social).
What are the periods of development?
1. Prenatal period (conception to birth)
2. Infancy and toddlerhood (birth to 2 yrs)
3. Early childhood (2-6 yrs)
4. Middle childhood (6-11 yrs)
5. Adolescence (11-18 yrs)
6. Emerging adulthood (18-25 yrs)
What is a theory? Why are they important?
An orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains and predicts behavior. Theories provide organizing frameworks for observations, guide and give meaning to what we see.
What are the three basic issues in development on which major theories take a stand on?
1. Is the course of development continuous or discontinuous?
2. Does one course development characterize all children or are there many possible courses?
3. Are genetic or environmental factors more important in influencing development?
Continuous versus discontinuous development
Continuous - a process of gradually adding more of the same types of skills that were there to being with
Discontinuous - a process in which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times
What is the stage theory of development?
Theories that accept discontinuous perspective regard development as taking place in stages. Stage theorists assume that people everywhere follow the same sequence of development.
What is the nature versus nurture controversy?
Nature includes inborn biological givens, such as hereditary information we receive from our parents. Nurture is the complex forces of the physical and social world that influence our biological makeup and psychological experiences before/after birth.
What are development theories from the medieval times (6-15 c)?
Childhood was regarded as a separate period of life and that even young teenagers were not fully mature. Laws recognized that children needed protection from people who might mistreat them. Clear awareness existed of children as vulnerable beings.
What are development theories from the reformation (16 c)?
Puritan belief gave rise to the view that children were born evil and stubborn and had to be civilized. Harsh, restrictive child-rearing practices were recommended to tame the depraved child.
What are the development theories from the enlightenment (17-18c)?
John Locke's blank slate and Jean-Jacque Rousseau's noble savages
Describe John Locke's blank slate theory.
John Locke viewed the child as a tabula rasa, or blank slate. Children begin as nothing at all and their characters are shaped entirely by experience.
Continuous, many courses of development, nurture.
Describe Jean-Jacques Rousseau's noble savages theory.
He viewed them as noble savages, naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong and an innate plan for growth.
Discontinuous, stagewise process, nature.
What are the development theories from the early 20th c?
Darwin's theory of evolution, baby biographies, G Stanley Hall's normative approach, mental testing movement by Binet and Simon, James Mark Baldwin theory
What is Darwin's theory?
Darwin - constructed his theory of evolution, which emphasized natural selection and survival of the fittest. Species have characteristics that are adapted to their environment, individuals best adapted survive to reproduce, their genes are passed to later generations.
What are baby biographies?
Scientists selected a child (relative) and jotted down day-to-day descriptions and impressions of the child's behavior. However, these biographies tended to be biased in that they were emotionally invested and they seldom described a clear idea of what the scientists wanted to find out.
What is the normative period?
G. Stanley Hall and Gesell developed theories based on evolutionary ideas. He regarded child development as a maturational process - a genetically determined series of events that unfold automatically.
The normative approach - large numbers of individuals and age-related averages are computed to represent typical development.
What is the mental testing movement?
Binet and Simon constructed the first successful intelligence test. The test captured the complexity of children's thinking which measured abilities on judgment, planning and critical reflection.
What was James Mark Baldwin's theory?
Baldwin believed that children's understanding of their physical and social worlds develops through a sequence of stages.
Stage, nature and nurture
What are the theoretical perspectives that influenced child development in the mid 20 c?
Pscyhoanalytic perspective (Freud and Erikson), behaviorism/social learning theory, Piaget's cognitive-developmental theory,
Describe Freud's theory.
Psychosexual theory - how parents manage their child's sexual and aggressive drives is crucial for healthy personality development.
Three parts of the personality - id, ego, superego - become integrated during a sequence of five
Id - the source of basic biological needs and desires.
Ego - conscious/rational, redirect id's impulses in acceptable ways.
Superego - conscience, develops
through interactions with parents, who insist that children conform to the values of society.
The 5 psychosexual stages:
Oral - birth-1 yr
Anal - 1-3 yrs
Phallic - 3-6 yrs
Latency - 6-11yrs
Genital - adolescence
What are strengths and weaknesses of Freud's theory?
Strengths -
The first to stress the influence of early parent-child relationship on development
Weaknesses -
Overemphasis on influence of sexual feelings in development, was based on problems of sexually-repressed adults which did not apply in other cultures, and Freud had not directly studied children directly
Describe Erikson's theory.
Psychosocial theory - in addition to mediating between id impulses and superego demands, the ego makes a positive contribution to development. Erikson pointed out that normal development must be understood in relation to each culture's life situation.

Strengths - one of the first to recognize lifespan nature of development
Basic trusts vs mistrust birth - 1yr
Autonomy vs shame & doubt 1 - 3 yrs
Initiative vs guilt 3 - 6 yrs
Industry vs inferiority 6 - 11 yrs
Identity vs identity confusion adolescence
Intimacy vs isolation young adulthood
Generativity vs stagnation middle adulthood
Integrity vs despair old age
What are contributions and limitations of the psychoanalytic perspective?
Its emphasis on the individual's unique life history
Clinical or case study, method is accepted
Inspired research on many aspects of emotional and social development.

Too strongly committed to in-depth study of individual children and failed to consider other methods.
Many ideas such as psychosexual stages and ego functioning are so vague and therefore difficult or impossible to test.
Describe traditional behaviorism.
Directly observable events are the appropriate focus of study in behaviorism.

Traditional behaviorism - Watson applied classical conditioning to children's behavior in an experiment with little Albert and a rat. Watson concluded that environment is the supreme force in development and adults can mold children's behavior carefully by controlling stimulus-response associations. He viewed development as a continuous process as well.
BF Skinner's operant conditioning theory is another form of behaviorism. The frequency of a behavior can be increased by following it with reinforcers or decreased through punishment.

Continuous, many courses, nurture
Describe the social learning theory.
Albert Bandura emphasized modeling AKA imitation, observational learning, as a powerful source of development. His theory stresses the importance of cognition. Children think about themselves and other people and become selective in what they imitate.
What are contributions and limitations of behaviorism/social learning theory?
Behavior modification - conditioning and modeling can eliminate undesirable behaviors and increase desirable responses.

The theory offers too narrow a view of important environmental influences.
Underestimates children's contributions to their own development.
Describe Piaget's cognitive-developmental theory.
Children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world. Structures of the mind develop to better fit with the external world.

Sensorimotor (birth-2yrs) cognitive development with baby's use of sense and movements.
Preoperational (2-7yrs) illogical thinking
Concrete operational (7-11yrs) organized, logical reasoning
Formal operational (11yrs+) abstract, systematic reasoning system of the adolescent and adult

Piaget conducted clinical interviews to study childhood/adolescent thought. A child's initial response to a task served as the basis for the next question.
What are the contributions and limitations of Piaget's theory?
Children are active learners who minds consist of rich structures of knowledge.
Explored children's understanding of physical world and reasoning about the social world.

Underestimation of the competencies of infants and preschoolers.
Children's performance on Piagetian problems can be improved with training.
Stages pay little attention to social and cultural influences.
What are the recent theoretical perspectives on child development?
Info processing/developmental neuroscience, ethology/evolutionary developmental psych, sociocultural theory, ecological systems theory, dynamic systems perspective
Describe information processing.
Information processing - a field of cognitive psychology that views human mind as a symbol-manipulating system through which information flows. Info to sense (input) --> behavioral response (output)
Flowcharts are used to map the precise steps individuals use to solve problems and complete tasks.
Children actively make sense of their experiences and modifying their own thinking response to environmental demands.

Continuous, one course, nature and nurture
What are strengths and weaknesses of info processing?
Strength: commitment to rigorous research methods, and its findings have led to teaching methods that help children approach tasks
Limitation: it is better at analyzing thinking into its components than at putting them back together into a comprehensive theory, it also ignores that cognition is not linear an logical, such as in imagination and creativity
Describe developmental cognitive neuroscience.
researchers from psych, bio, neuroscience and medicine study the relationship between changes in the brain and the developing child's cognitive processing and behavior patterns. Methods for analyzing brain activity while children perform tasks have enhanced knowledge of relationships between brain functioning, cognitive capacities and behavior.
Describe ethology.
The adaptive or survival value of behavior and its evolutionary history. Imprinting is a behavior pattern that promotes survival. Critical, sensitive periods.
John Bowlby applied ethological theory to the understanding of the human infant-caregiver relationship.
Describe evolutionary developmental psychology.
the adaptive value of species-wide cognitive, emotional and social competencies throughout change in age. Evolutionary psychologists are not just concerned with genetic and biological roots of development but also interested in learning. They want to understand the entire organism-environment system.
Describe the sociocultural theory.
Vygotsky believed that social interaction is necessary for children to acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a community's culture.
He agreed with Piaget that children are active, constructive beings but he views cognitive development as a socially mediated process.
Continuous and stagewise, many courses, nature and nurture

Limitations: neglects the biological side of development and cognitive change, less emphasis on children's capacity to shape their own development.
Describe the ecological systems theory.
Bronfenbrenner came up with view that the child develops within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment.
Microsystem - activities and interaction patterns in the child's immediate surroundings. Behavior is bidirectional.
Mesosystem - connections between the microsystems, such as home, school, neighborhood, day care - places that includes children.
Exosystem - social settings that do not contain children but still affect children's experiences in immediate settings, such as parents' workplace, health services, extended family, friends.
Macrosystem - cultural values, laws, customs and resources.

Bronfenbrenner believed that the environment is not a static force that affects children in a uniform way, it is ever-changing. Children are products and producers of their own environment. This idea is known as chronosystem.
What is the dynamic systems perspective?
The child's mind, body and physical and social worlds form an integrated system that guides mastery of new skills. The system is dynamic.
Dynamic systems perspective tries to find out how children attain new levels of organization by studying their behavior.
What are the stances of major theories?
Psychoanalytic perspective - discontinuous/one course/nature and nurture
Behaviorism/social learning theory - continuous/many courses/nurture
Piaget's cognitive-developmental theory - discontinuous/one course/nature and nurture
Info processing - continuous/one course/nature and nurture
Ethology/evolutionary developmental psych - continuous and discontinuous/one course/nature and nurture
Vygotsky's sociocultural theory - continuous and discontinuous/many courses/nature and nurture
Ecological systems theory - many courses/nature and nurture
Dynamic systems perspective - continuous and discontinuous/many courses/nature and nurture
What is the importance of social policies for protecting children's well-being? What factors that affect the policy-making process?
Social policies are essential for protecting children's well-being. Child development research has become concerned with applying its knowledge base to solving social problems.

Factors that affect the policy-making process include resources to education and health. US and Canada are slow to move toward national standard and funding for child care because affordable child care is in short supply and in substandard quality. Indiviualism (vs collectivism societies) is a reason that the public is slow to endorse government-supported benefits for all families.
Explain how American children fare on social indicators measuring health, living conditions, and psychological well-being.
US has the highest percentage of extremely poor children. US does not rank well on any key measure of children's health and well-being. 11% of children have no health insurance. US has been slow to move toward national standards and funding for child care.
What are the justifications for child oriented policies?
Children are the future; humanitarian grounds—children have basic rights as human beings (Convention on the Rights of the Child)
What is resilience? What factors offer protection from the damaging effect of stressful lives?
The ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development.
Protective factors include: characteristics of the child (high intelligence and socially endowed talents, including temperament); warm parental relationship; social support outside the immediate family; community resources and opportunities
What is a hypothesis? Research question?
A hypothesis is a prediction drawn from a theory. A research question is a question on a topic of interest where little or no theory exists. Both offer investigators guidance as they settle on research methods and designs.
Why is it important to be knowledgeable about research strategies?
Each of us must be a wise and critical consumer of knowledge. Knowing the strengths and limitations of research strategies is important in separating dependable info from misleading results. Also, individuals who work with children may be in a unique position to build bridges between research and practice by conducting studies.
What research methods are commonly used to study children in systemic observation? List strengths and limitations of each.
-Naturalistic observation: observation of behavior in natural contexts.
Strength: it reflects participants' everyday behaviors; Limit: cannot control conditions under which participants are observed. Accuracy of observations may be reduced by observer influence and observer bias

-Structured observation: observation of behavior in a lab, where conditions are the same for all. Strength: grants each participant an equal opportunity to display the behavior of interest; Limit: may not yield observations typical of participants' behavior in everyday life, accuracy of observations may be reduced by observer influence and observer bias
What research methods are commonly used to study children in self-reports? List strengths and limitations of each.
-Clinical interview: flexible interviewing procedure in which the investigator obtains a complete account of the participant's thoughts. Strength: permits people to display their thoughts in terms that are as close as possible to the way they think in everyday life, great breadth and depth of info can be obtained in a short time; Limit: may not result in accurate reporting of info, flexible procedure makes comparing individuals' responses difficult.
-Structured interview, questionnaires, and tests: self-report instruments in which each participant is asked the same Qs in the same way.

Strength: permits comparisons of participants' responses and efficient data collection, researchers can specify answer alternatives that participants might not think of in an open-ended interview; Limit: does not yield the same depth of info as a clinical interview, responses are still subject to inaccurate reporting
What research methods are commonly used to study children in psychophysiological method? List strengths and limitations of each.
Methods that measure the relationship between physiological processes and behavior. Strength: reveals which CNS structures contribute to development and individual differences in certain competencies, helps infer the perceptions, thoughts and emotions of infants and young children who cannot report them clearly;

Limit: cannot reveal with certainty the meaning of autonomic or brain activity, many factors besides those of interest to the researcher can influence a physiological response
What research methods are commonly used to study children in clinical, or case study, method? List strengths and limitations of each.
a full picture of one individual's psychological functioning, obtained by combining interviews, observations, test scores, and sometimes physiological assessments.
Strength: provides rich, descriptive insights into factors that affect development; Limit: may be biased by researchers' theoretical preferences, findings cannot be applied to others
What research methods are commonly used to study children in ethnography method? List strengths and limitations of each.
participant observation of a culture or distinct social group by making field notes and capturing the culture's unique values and social processes.

Strength: provides a more complete description than can be derived from a single observational visit, interview or questionnaire; Limit: may be biased by researchers' values and theoretical preferences, findings cannot be applied to other people or settings
What is reliability?
Reliability - the consistency or repeatability of measures of behavior. Observations and evaluations of peoples' actions cannot differ from different researchers, they must agree on what they see. An interview, test or questionnaire must yield similar results on two occasions in a short period.
Researchers determine reliability of data through inter-rater reliability in observational research and test-retest reliability in self-report/psychophysiological data.
What is validity?
Validity - research methods that accurately measure characteristics that the researcher set out to measure. In setting up an investigation researchers safeguards to types of validity: internal validity (degree to which conditions internal to the design of the study permit an accurate test of hypothesis) and external validity (the degree to which their findings generalize to settings and participants outside the original study).
What is event sampling? Time sampling?
In systemic observation,
Event sampling - observer records all instances of a particular behavior during a specific time period
Time sampling - observer records whether certain behaviors occur during a sample of short time intervals
What is observer influence? Observer bias?
In systemic observation,
Observer influence - participants may react in unnatural ways; can be minimized
Observer bias - observers record what they expect, rather than what really happens; a serious danger
What is a correlational design? What are the limits?
Correlational design - consists of info gathered on individuals in natural life circumstances and no effort to alter their experiences; the relationships between participants' characteristics and behavior or development are looked at. Correlational design offers a way of examining relationships between variables. Limit: cannot infer cause and effect
Correlation coefficient - a number that describes how two measures/variable are associated with each other
Experimental research design? What are the limits?
Experimental design - an evenhanded procedure that assigns people to two or more treatment conditions, which allows for inference of cause and effect
Independent variable - investigator expects it to cause change in another variable (what is manipulated)
Dependent variable - investigator expects it to be influenced by the IV (what is being measured)
Confounding variable - variables closely associated that their effects on an outcome cannot be distinguished
Random assignment - to protect against confounding variables, an unbiased procedure is used to randomly assign participants to a group and it increases the change that their characteristics will be equally distributed across treatment groups
What are the modified experimental designs?
(table on pg 60)
Field experiment - random assignment of participants to treatment conditions in natural settings
Natural, quasi- experiments - comparing treatments that already exist. It differs from correlational research in that groups of people are carefully chosen to ensure that their characteristics are as much alike as possible.
What is a longitudinal design? What are the strengths and limits?
Longitudinal design - participants are studied repeatedly at different ages and changes are noted as they get older.

Strength: tracks performance of each person over time and can identify common patterns and individual differences in development, also permits examination of relationships between early and later events and behaviors

Limit: biased sampling , selective attrition, practice effects, cohort effects (results based on one cohort may not apply to children developing at other times), change in theories and methods, becoming outdated.
What is across-sectional design? What are the strengths and limits?
Cross-sectional design - groups of people differing in age are studied at the same point in time. Strength: it is an efficient strategy for describing age-related trends, participants are measured once so there is no concern over selective attrition, practice effects or changes in the field; Limit: does not provide permit study of individual developmental trends, age difference may be distorted due to cohort effects.
What are sequential designs? Strengths and limits?
Sequential designs - several similar cross-sectional or longitudinal studies at varying times. Some sequential designs combine longitudinal and cross-sectional strategies.

Strength: reveals cohorts effects, make both longitudinal and cross-sectional comparisons, permits tracking of age-related changes more effectively than longitudinal design.

Limit: May have same problems as longitudinal and cross-sect designs but the design itself helps identify difficulties
What are micogenetic designs? Strengths and limits?
Microgenetic - an adaptation of the longitudinal approach that presents children with a novel task and follows their mastery over a series of closely spaced sessions. This design is useful for studying cognitive development and offers insight on how change occurs.

Limit: requires intensive study of participants moment-by-moment behaviors, time required for participants to change is difficult to anticipate, practice effects may distort developmental trends.
Why are experimental and developmental designs sometimes combined?
This combination allows for inference of causal information in order to enhance development.
What are children's research rights?
Protection from harm, informed consent, privacy, knowledge of results, and beneficial treatments
Why does research on children raise ethical concerns?
Children are more vulnerable than adults to physical and psychological harm. Their immaturity makes it difficult or impossible for children to evaluate for themselves what participation in research will mean. Therefore, special ethical guidelines have been developed.
Describe risk-vs-benefits ratio, informed consent and debriefing.
A risks-vs-benefits ratio is involved in judging a study, where costs to participants in terms of inconvenience and possible psychological or physical injury is weighed against the study's value for advancing knowledge and improving conditions of life.
Informed consent is given which is people's right to have all aspects of a study explained to them that might affect their willingness to participate.
Debriefing is where the researcher provides a full account of justification of the activities.
Distinguish between genotypes and phenotypes.
Pheotypes - directly observable characteristics
Genotype - complex blend of genetic information that determines our species and influences unique characteristics
Describe the structure and function of chromosomes and DNA molecules.
Chromosome - rodlike structures that stores and transmit genetic info
DNA - what chromosomes are made of, it is a long double-stranded molecule (twisted ladder)
DNA is made up of genes along the length of the chromosome
Explain the process of mitosis.
duplication of cell into many more cells. In mitosis, chromosomes copy themselves.
Describe the process of meiosis, and explain how it leads to genetic variability.
Cell division of gametes which halves the number of chromosomes normally present in body cells.
A special event called crossing over occurs, where chromosome line up and break at one at a few points along their length and exchange segments. Genes from one are replaced by genes from another.
Describe the genetic events that determine the sex of the new organism.
Sex chromosomes determine the gender. The mom donates an X and if the dad donates an X, it is a girl. If the dad donates a Y, it is a boy.
Identify two types of twins, and explain how each is created.
Identical/monozygotic - a zygote separates into two clusters of cells that develop into two individuals
Fraternal/dizygotic - results from release and fertilization of two ova
Describe basic patterns of genetic inheritance, and give examples of each.
Dominant-recessive inheritance - only one allele has an effect on characteristics, called dominant allele. Recessive allele has no effect.
Incomplete dominance - both alleles are expressed, resulting in a combined or intermediate trait (sickle cell)
X-linked inheritance - harmful allele is carried on the X chromosome (hemophilia)
Genomic imprinting - alleles are chemically marked so that one pair member (either mother's or father's) is activated, regardless of its makeup
Mutation - a sudden, permanent change in a segment of DNA
Polygenic inheritance - many genes determine the characteristic in question
What is phenylketonuria?
A disorder caused by two recessive alleles. It affects food breakdown.
Describe major chromosomal abnormalities, and explain how they occur.
Down syndrome - due to failure of 21st chromosome to separate during meiosis, so the new individual inherits 3 chromosomes instead of 2
Abnormalties of sex-chromosomes - most common problem is the presence of an extra X or Y chromosome or the absence of one X in females.
What is genetic counseling?
a communication process designed to help couples understand genetic principles, genetic testing and prevention of genetic disorders. It can assess their chances of giving birth to a disordered baby and choose best course of action.
What is prenatal diagnosis and fetal medicine?
Prenatal diagnosis and fetal medicine - medical procedures that permit detection of problems before birth (table on pg 83)
-chorionic villus sampling
-maternal blood analysis
-preimplantation genetic diagnosis
What are the types of fetal medicine?
Drugs in uterus, surgery, bone marrow transplants, gene therapy/proteomics
List the three periods of prenatal development, and describe the major milestones of each.
Zygote - 2 weeks; fertilization/implantation/start of placenta
Embryo - 6 weeks; Arms, legs, face, organs, muscles develop, and <3 starts beating
Fetus - 30 weeks; growth and finishing
What are sources of food and shelter in the uterus?
Chorion - protective membrane that surrounds the amnion (which encloses the fetus in amniotic fluid and acts as a cushion and temp control)
Placenta - permits food and oxygen, permits wastes to be carried away
Umbilical cord - contains a large vein that delivers nutrient-blood and arteries that remove waste
Describe the last half for 1st month and the second month during period of the embryo.
Last half of 1st mo - embryonic disk forms 3 layers of cells: ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm; production of neurons
2nd mo - rapid growth of eyes, ears, nose, jaw and neck; buds become limbs and phalanges; responds to touch
Describe the 3rd month, 2nd trimester and 3rd trimester of period of the fetus.
3rd mo - lungs expand and contract; sex is evident on ultrasound
2nd tri - mother can feel its movements; vernix (covers the skin and prevent chapping), lanugo (help vernix stick to skin), glial cells (support and feed neurons); brain weight increases 10-fold
3rd tri - age of viability (22-26wks, point baby can survive); cerebral cortex enlarges, fetus spends more time awake; beginnings of personality ; greater response to external stimulation
A baby is at higher risk of what diseases due to low/high birth weight?
Low - heart disease, stroke, diabetes
High - breast cancer
Cite factors that influence the impact of teratogens on the developing organism.
Dose - larger doses over long periods of time have more negative effects
Heredity - some individuals are better able to withstand harmful environments due to genetic makeup
Other negative influences - presence of several negative factors at one can worsen impact of a single harmful agent
Age - during sensitive period, organism is especially sensitive to surroundings
List agents known to be or suspected of being teratogens, and discuss evidence supporting the harmful impact of each.
Drugs (prescription/nonprescription/illegal)
Alcohol - Fetal alcohol syndrome, partial fetal alcohol syndrome, alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder
Pollution - mercury, PCB, lead
Maternal diseases - viral or bacterial or parasitic diseases
Describe how maternal exercise, nutrition, emotional well-being, and age affect the developing organism.
Exercise - a fit prego experiences fewer physical discomforts
Nutrition - healthy diet helps ensure health of mother and baby; poor diet can cause loss in brain weight and suppress immune system development
Emotional stress - women that suffer severe stress put their babies at risk of difficulties; stress hormones can cross the placenta and cause rise in fetal heart rate and activity level
Age - with increased age in women giving birth, complication rates in babies increase
Previous births
Describe the three stages of childbirth
1. Dilation and effacement of cervix
2. Delivery of baby
3. Birth of placenta
Describe the baby's adaptation to labor.and delivery
Baby can withstand trauma from the uterine contractions, which expose pressure to the head, squeezing of umbilical cord/placenta. Oxygen supply is temporarily reduced. However, baby produces high stress hormones which helps it withstand oxygen deprivation by sending rich supply of blood to brain and heart, and prepare it to breathe.
Describe he newborn baby's appearance.
The average newborn is 20in long and 7.5 pounds. Head is large in relation to body. They have round faces, chubby cheeks, large foreheads and big eyes.
Explain the purpose and main features of the Apgar Scale.
Apgar scale is a technique (scale from 0-2) to check for signs in a newborn.
Appearance = color
Pulse = heart rate
Grimace = reflex irritability
Activity = muscle tone
Respiration = respiratory effort
Describe natural childbirth and home delivery
A natural childbirth consists of techniques aimed at reducing pain and medical intervention and making childbirth a pleasant experience. Partners and family accompanying the mom reduces risk of birth complications and lessens the time of giving birth. Moms give birth in upright sitting position during natural birth, which research finds better than lying on the back with feet in stirrups.

Some moms have births at home with assistance from a doctor or midwife. Complications rarely occur as long as the doctor/midwife is well trained (especially in emergency situations).
Explain the benefits and risks of using pain-relieving drugs during labor and delivery.
Pain-relieving drugs help women cope with childbirth but can cause problems, such as weakening of uterine contractions and can cross the placenta and affect baby.
Describe the risks associated with oxygen deprivation. What can help reduce the effects?
Brain damage can occur is breathing is delayed more than 10min and cell death occurs after. Anoxia can occur during labor when umbilical cord is squeezed, if baby is in breech position. Premature separation of placenta can cause anoxia as well. Rh factor incompatibility can lead to destroying of fetus's red blood cells and reducing oxygen supply.
Using a head-cooling device or cool water blanket can reduce brain injury.
Describe the risks associated with preterm and low-birth-weight infants. What can help reduce the effects?
Premature babies may suffer from respiratory distress syndrome and weigh very little. Low birth weight may lead to frequent illness, inattention, overactivity, sensory impairments, poor motor coordination, language delays, low IQ scores, emotional and behavior problems.
A preterm baby is cared for in a bed called an isolette that is temp controlled and has filtered air.
Stimulation, such as kangaroo care, can also be helpful.
Summarize findings from the Kauai study relating to the long-term consequences of birth
Findings show that long-term difficulties increased if birth trauma was severe. However, mildly to moderately stressed children that grow up in stable families did almost as well on measure of IQ and psychological adjustment as those with no birth problems. Babies exposed to poverty and mentally ill parents did develop serious difficulties. As long as birth injuries are not overwhelming, a supportive home environment can restore children's growth.
There were some cases where children fared serious birth complications and grew up in troubled environments that grew into competent adults. These children relied on factors outside the family and within themselves to overcome stress.
Cite the goals of behavioral genetics, and describe methods used to infer the role of heredity in human characteristics, noting the limitations of these techniques.
Behavioral genetics is a field devoted to uncovering the contributions of nature and nurture to the diversity in human traits and abilities.
Heritability estimates measure the extent to which individual differences in traits are due to genetic factors. Kinship studies are done, which compare characteristics of family members. It has been found that genes have a moderate or half role in IQ; has effect on personality and disorders such as schizophrenia. A heritability estimate ranges from 0 to 1.00.
Concordance - what percent of the time do twins both show a trait? Ranges from 0-100%.
Limitations: accuracy of heritability estimates which depends on the extent to which the twin pairs studied reflect genetic/environmental variation in the population; limited usefulness, the stats give no info on how IQ and personality develop or how children might respond to environments designed to help them develop more
Describe concepts that explain how heredity and environment work together to influence complex human characteristics.
Range of reaction - each person's unique genetically determined response to the environment
Canalization - the tendency of heredity to restrict the development of some characteristics to just one or a few outcomes; a strongly canalized behavior develops similarly in a wide range of environments and only strong environmental forces can change it
Genetic-environmental correlation - our genes influence the environments to which we are exposed
What are the types of genetic-environmental correlations?
-passive correlation - child has no control over it, parents might

-evocative correlation - responses that children evoke from others are influenced by child's
heredity and the responses strengthen the child's original style

-active correlation - children extend their experiences beyond family and given the freedom to make more choices so they actively seek environment that fit with their genetic tendencies
What is epigenesis?
Heredity and environment are bidirectional: genes affect behavior/experiences but experiences/behavior also affect gene expression.
Epigenesis - development resulting from ongoing, bidirectional exchanges between heredity and all levels of the environment