An Eastern European country was under communist control until 1989, when it seemingly successfully turned to democracy. An influx of immigrants from the Middle East into other European countries has, however, created a backlash there more recently, leading to the election of a nationalist president who promised to close the country's borders to Islamic people. Once in office, he keeps his promise. He also cancels future elections. Meanwhile, he beefs up the state's police and intelligence agencies, arrests and jails critics, declares dissident groups illegal, and asks citizens to report any instance of antigovernment activity they hear about. Far from being democratic, the country's government is now a classic example of _____________ system. For well over a decade now, U.S. Senator Marquess has publicly supported immigration reform. In so doing, she has reflected majority views in her state, as shown in many surveys. Now, it appears, a big push is coming from the White House and congressional leaders to get a reform bill through. The senator finds what she is hearing from her constituents bewildering, however. Most appear to strongly support a path to citizenship for undocumented immigrants now in the United States. Another majority, however, including many against a path to citizenship, seems to see building a wall on the Mexican border as being most important. Constituents, meanwhile, appear divided over hiring more border patrol officers, minimizing family-linked migration, and whether to expand or decrease the number of work visa holders.Marquess wants to do what majorities in her state want, but faces a basic dilemma of representative democracy in doing so. That dilemma is best described as: In the early 1970s, a federal court injunction prevented the New York Times newspaper from publishing excerpts of a highly controversial, classified Department of Defense study of American military actions in Vietnam, a study popularly referred to as the Pentagon Papers. A former U.S. military analyst, Daniel Ellsberg, had illegally leaked the study to the Times, and later the rival Washington Post. The Supreme Court, however, later refused to keep the newspapers from printing the excerpts, on the grounds that the government cannot, except in extraordinary circumstances, engage in prior restraint, a name referring to the practice of: In 1957, Senator Strom Thurmond held the Senate floor and talked or answered questions-or filibustered, to use a Senate term for unlimited debate-for over 24 hours. The South Carolina lawmaker did so prior to a vote on the Civil Rights Act, legislation that most observers expected to easily pass-and which did, shortly after he concluded. During his time on the floor, he did not just talk about the law. Instead, he read the Declaration of Independence, jury rules, and even his grandmother's biscuit recipe. In so doing, however, Thurmond was using his time in a manner consistent with filibuster history, as a means of: In 2010, two members of Congress held a colorful press conference, with goats in tow, to announce their intention to try to end federal mohair (a fabric made from goat hair) subsidies. These subsidies, long the target of presidents and members of Congress from both parties, dated from the mid-1950s, when Congress decided to support mohair production as a precaution against wool shortages. The subsidies were cut in 1995, but reemerged a few years later. The efforts of Chaffetz and Weiner to end the estimated $750,000 in subsidies, meanwhile, failed.Why might programs such as the mohair subsidy be so difficult to end?