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Theories of Personality Part II Test
25 Quizlet cards---All 25 or 0 points.
Terms in this set (33)
a school of psychology that emphasizes personal growth and the achievement of maximum potential by each unique individual
the humanist term for realizing one's unique potential
someone's experience or image of themself, developed through interaction with others
conditions of worth
viewing oneself in a favorable light due to supportive feedback received from interaction with others
unconditional positive regard
the perception that individuals' significant others value them for what they are, which leads the individuals to grant themselves the same favorable opinion or view
having the person and self coincide
What is the humanist view concerning behaviors
The humanist view says people have the freedom and will to change their behaviors. In
What do the theories of Psychoanalysis and Behaviorism FAIL to account for/ what's lacking in each of their views?
A humanistic viewpoint is lacking in both views as they demean human behaviors.
emphasized the struggle to control primitive, instinctual urges on the one hand and to come to terms with the demands of the superego, or conscience, on the other
saw human behavior in mechanistic terms: our actions are shaped by rewards and punishments
How do both view human behavior in general?
Freud views human behavior by emphasizing irrational and destructive instincts, Skinner by emphasizing only external causes of behavior.
According to Humanistic Theory what do all human beings strive for?
According to Humanistic Theory all human beings strive for self-actualization
created a "third force in psychology" as an alternative to psychoanalysis and behaviorism. based his theory on personality studies of healthy, creative, self-actualizing people.
According to Carl Rogers, why aren't people born with a positive regard?
People are not born with positive regard because it is gradually formed over years as we observe how others react to who we are.
what do humanistic approaches to personality suggest?
Humanistic approaches to personality suggest we freely choose how we spend our lives
our conscious is what?
private and subjective
who is Carl Rogers?
Rogers is a psychologists who believed that many people suffer from a conflict between what they value in themselves and what they believe other people value in them
what is optimism about human nature according to Rogers?
Optimism about human nature is the essence of human nature.
What are two things Rogers believed?
He believed that many people suffer from conflict between the value within themselves and what they believe other people value in them.
He believed everyone was constantly struggling to become more and more complete and perfect.
What does Rogers say all people have?
Roger says all people have a self, the self is essentially your image of who you are and what you value in yourself, in other people, in life in general
Rogers was convinced that what?
Roger was convinced that people cope with conditions of worth by rejecting or denying parts of their person that do not fit their self-concept
what did rogers believe about self-regard?
Rogers believed that self-regard and regard for others go together and that the human potential for good and self-fulfillment outweighs the potential for evil and despair
What creates a defensive and limited person?
the gap between self and person
Psychosis is a condition during which a person has a shattered identity. When one has this condition, thought and emotions are so impaired that contact is lost with external reality.
Describe Carl Rogers' theories on denial and distortion
people use denial and distortion as tactics to avoid the anxiety and distress they experience when their real and ideal self are not sufficiently aligned
what does the overuse of defense mechanisms create
defense mechanisms like distortion and denial can result in a condition called psychosis
Consider the mental distress that may occur due to incongruence between the ideal self and real self
When there is incongruence between the ideal self and real self we create mental distress. This occurs because we are not staying true to ourselves and we are creating negative feelings, like in the examples we read in the above article.
What is the ideal self?
how we wish to be, it has parts of what our parents have taught us, what we admire in others, what our society promotes, and what we think is in our best interest
When people were asked to answer "who am I" in 20 different ways what were the two major groups?
social roles and personality traits
self image does not reflect reality necessarily
a person with anorexia for example may think they are fat but they aren't
what is incongruence?
a difference exist between ideal self and actual self
what affects how much you value yourself?
a mismatch between how you see yourself and what you want to be
what is the development of congruence dependent on?
unconditional positive regard, rogers thought that for a person to achieve self-actualization they must be in a state of congruence.
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