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Final Exam Early Childhood Study guide
Use this for studying for the final! it will be your best friend.
Terms in this set (110)
What is the study of the factors involved in the passing of traits in living beings from one generation to the next?
All the traits that are passed to a child from blood relatives is called what?
A way of describing the stages of change people experience throughout life (from birth through old age)
individual life cycle
The stages in growth and development that follow one another in a set order; also called milestones
What is the typical time when a developmental milestone occurs called?
All the conditions that surround and affect a child is known as their what?
What type of development include how people learn, what they learn, and how they express what they know through language?
What occurs when a child performs like a younger child?
Skills that should be mastered at a certain stage in life are __________ __________.
Short bushy cables that allow each neuron to receive signals sent by other neurons
long, thick cables with terminal buttons (small knobs at the end of the axons) that transmit all the signals neuron-neuron
The network of fibers that carry brain signals between neurons.
Has the ability to change or adapt to the environment. (it can be shaped and reshaped)
Parenting style in which parents set some rules, but allow some freedom is called ___________________.
The parenting style in which parents desire to provide for and protect their children beyond what is in the best interest of children is called _______________________.
Potential income given up by a parent who leaves the workforce and stays home to raise a child.
Decisions couples make about whether or not they want to have children and when to have them is called _________________________.
The parenting style in which parents give children almost no guidance or rules is called ___________________.
_______________________________ is the discipline technique in which parents use or threaten to use some form of physical punishment or deny privileges.
Female germ cell is the ovum (often called egg).
The _______________ is the organ filled with blood vessels that nourish the baby in the uterus.
The __________ is the organ in which the baby develops and is protected until birth.
(reproductive glands) do not produce sperm until the body is capable of reproduction.
Outermost membrane that surrounds the baby in the uterus, and amion.
The second stage of prenatal development which lasts 6 weeks.
The fluid-filled sac that surrounds the baby in the uterus is called the _____________
The ____________ is the lower, narrow portion of the uterus that connects the uterus to the vagina.
Is a disorder caused by the body's inability to use sugar properly.
Is a procedure for finding abnormalities in the fetus.
Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
Is a deflect caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.
Is a food guidance system developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA).
Is the name for high blood pressure caused by pregnancy and is a dangerous condition referred to as preeclampsia or toxemia.
Pregnancy induced hypertension
DNA is a chemical compound found in threadlike structures called chromosomes, they carry genes in the living cells
Is a physical biochemical problem in a baby that is present at birth and may be caused by genetic or environmental factors.
___________________ is the change in the baby's position in which the uterus settles downward and forward, and the baby descends lower into the pelvis.
A _____________________________________ is a nurse who has special training in delivering babies during low-risk pregnancies.
Certified Nurse Midwife
The _________________________ is a delivery method in which the pregnant woman is trained to use breathing patterns to keep her mind off the pain.
The ____________________________________________ is the law that protects the rights of qualified employees to take unpaid leave for various family-related reasons such as maternity or paternity leave.
Family & Medical Leave Act
A __________________ is a doctor who cares for infants, children and teens until adulthood when physical growth is complete.
__________________ is a liver condition that can make the skin, tissues, and body fluids look yellow.
Mood disorders in men that may occur after the birth of a child are called ________________________________ ______________.
Paternal postpartum depression
Is a serious form of depression that occurs less frequently than baby blues.
Postpartum depression (PPD)
The condition in which a child fails to grow at a healthy rate is called _________________________________.
Failure to thrive
Framework of the body that consists of cartilage, bones, and teeth is called the __________________________________.
To ______________ is to move by using the hands and knees or the hands and feet with the abdomen off the floor.
Vision achieved when using both eyes in unison, equally, and accurately to fuse in the brain the two images into one image is called _______________ vision.
Are words people understand but doesn't speak or write.
The __________________ is a term that describes how all infants, regardless of culture, are born with the internal drive to learn certain concepts and skills in holistic ways and at approximately the same age.
Ability to understand that an object stays the same from one time to the next is called __________________________
__________________________ is the ability to tell how far away something is.
___________________ is organizing information that comes through the senses.
Words a person uses in talking or writing is called ________________________________.
____________________ behaviors are proper or expected ways to express emotions at certain ages.
Infants who react to anything new with caution and who can easily become physically agitated and distressed; formerly called difficult infants are now called ____________________ infants.
The scientific study of children from conception to adolescence.
Which stage of the life cycle begins at 12 months and ends at 36 months
Consists of chemicals that can turn genes on and off.
Before Sarah can learn to read, she must learn many skills such as how to move her eyes from top to bottom and from left to right on the page. Learning this and other skills before reading is an example of_________
sequenced steps in growth and development
what the rate of growth and development is affected by (what factors)
Heredity and the environment
Which of the following is a poor child observation practice?
Do not take a pencil and paper with you because that will interfere with your observations
Havinghurst's developmental tasks did include:
physical maturation, inner pressures, social pressures.
What stage of brain development comes first?
Two weeks after conception (embryo)
Executive functions mature at approximately ________ years of age.
Galinsky's essential life skills
Making connections, Focus and self control, and Taking on challenges
Which of the following is NOT one of Galinsky's essential life skills:
Encourage sensitive periods
By providing children with opportunities to practice tasks.
A decision NOT to parent
need not always be a permanent choice
Which of the following is the most important/best reason for having a child?
A person wants to welcome a child into his or her life and share his or her love and time with the child.
Which parenting style teaches a positive type of self-discipline?
Which of the following is NOT true about cultural influences on the family?
Only parents influence children's enculturation.
During which stage do most of the unborn baby's body systems begin to develop?
The time from when a baby can survive if born early; possibly as early as 23 weeks, but 24 to 28 weeks improves chances is the called the ________ _______________
Age of viablity
If a husband and wife both have type A blood ( a dominant trait) but also carry a trait for type O blood (a recessive trait) what can be known about their children's blood types?
The children's blood might be type A or type O.
Who determines the gender of the child?
Chromosome that the male parent contributes. (XY) He contributes either (Y) or (X) depending on the gender.
Which of the following is NOT an environmental factor that can affect the unborn baby?
Which of the following IS an environmental factor that can affect the unborn baby?
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), Nutrition of the mother, Drugs and alcohol.
Diabetes is a disorder caused by the body's inability to use sugar properly.
Pregnancy-induced hypertension is the name for high blood pressure caused by pregnancy. This dangerous condition can also be referred to as preeclampsia or toxemia.
Physical activity and rest are both important during pregnancy.
Can begin in the very first weeks of pregnancy.
Delivery decisions do NOT involve deciding on ______________________
adjustments to make in housing arrangements.
Delivery decisions DO involve deciding on _________________
The place for the birth, the method of delivery, cord-blood banking.
___________________________________ is the drug-free delivery method in which the pregnant woman learns about the birth process and uses breathing and relaxation techniques to reduce fear and pain during labor.
Facility which stores umbilical cord blood for future use.
Cord Blood Banking
In the early part of labor, contractions come every __________ minutes and last about 30 seconds.
Full dilation of the cervix will measure about ___________ INCHES in width.
The most severe postpartum disorder
By the end of the first year, the weight of the infant has ___________
Which of the following statements is NOT true of infant body proportions?
The legs are long and slender.
Changes in the infant's bones include all of the following except ________________.
softening of bones
Changes in the infant's bones include all of the following ________________.
increasing length, ossification, changes in numbers.
Reflexes are ___________________.
triggered by an outside stimulus
Which sentence is true about grasping?
Grasping starts as a reflex, but becomes a voluntary movement.
Which of the following is NOT a pattern of motor development?
The baby develops from the fingers inward to the center of the body.
Which of the following IS a pattern of motor development?
The baby develops from head to toe.
The baby's motor skills develop from general to specific.
The baby develops from the center outward to the extremities.
Trunk control is required for ________________.
sitting and rolling over
Which of the following shows the correct order of appearance of the motor skills listed?
Crawling, creeping, cruising
What is true about spoon-feeding?
spoon-fed weaning you can control the amount of food your baby is putting into their mouth and so may well reduce any chance of choking.
Brain research on infants has noted most activity occurs in the __________ centers.
vision and motor
Perceptual learning during infancy does NOT involve __________________
giving names to people and objects
Perceptual learning during infancy DOES involve __________________
organizing information that comes through the senses.
how fast babies organize information,
the way babies react to different stimuli.
First words are formed most directly as a result of ___________.
Social development is shaped primarily by ________________.
how adults and babies affect each other
Which of the following is NOT true about fear?
Fear cannot affect physical and intellectual growth.
Which of the following IS true about fear?
What adults say and how they act affect babies' fears.
Adults who act or look fearful will cause children to be fearful. Adults who warn babies of many situations teach children to fear.
With time, infants' anger becomes _______________.
more directed toward a certain person or object
What "Goodness of fit" refers to?
A child's temperament matches the parents ideal.
How infants learn primarily in their first year of life (according to Piaget)?
Piaget described intelligence in infancy as sensorimotor or based on direct, physical contact where infants use senses and motor skills to taste, feel, pound, push, hear, and move in order to experience the world.
Social-emotional development in infancy does NOT include________________.
How parents interact with their children (for many years they do most of what?)
parental cognitive empathy, or the ability to take someone else's perspective, as well as higher levels of baby self-regulation—their ability to soothe themselves.
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