65 terms

adverse drug reaction

STUDY
PLAY
what is the average drugs taken the 10 lunar months of conception
more than 5 drgugs
what are the most frequent drug use
diuretic
opiod analgeic
anticoagulants
the science and activities relating to the detection , evaluation and prevention of adverse drug reation or any drug related problem
pharmacovigilance
what used to be the treatment for hyperemesis gravidarum but was later to have been found to cause phocomelia
thalidominde
4 key pointsin adverse drug reaction
Undersirable/ unwanted
unintentional
are suspected and not proven
may develop as a consequence of therapy or other procedure
What are examples of undersirable / uinwanted ADR
orlistant/xenical
misoprostol
heparin
rifampicin
isoniazid, pyrazinamide
this drug is a wt loss agent eliminates fat through stool, however the fluidity f the stool can lead to electrolyte imbalance and dehydration
orlistat/xenical
this is a powerful anti0ulcer drug also used for post partum bleeding. However this is also an abortifacient drug
misoprostol
an anticogualnt that usage increases the risk for bleeding.
heparin
what is the therapeutic goal of heparin
keeping the protime to 1.5-2.5 x of normal
these are anti tb drug that can cause jaundice
RIP
these are ADR that results to worsened life condition and may rasie ethical issue
undesirable /unwanted
this type of ADR have drug effect that mahy not be necessarily connected to the therapeutic goal and may or may not be advantageous
unintentional
these are ex of unintentional drugs
dephenhydramine
minoxidil
sildenafil citrate
proton pump inhibitors
diazepam
this is a histamine 1 receptor anatagonist that is first line fortreatment of allerfgic reaction with side effects of sedation, anti nausea, antimuscarinic and antiparkinsonian
diphenhydramine
this drug was initially used as an anti hypertensive, now use for hair growthq
minoxidil
this drug was use as an anti hypertensive now use for men with erectile dysfunctionq
sildenafil citrate
this drug is effective for gastric ulcersbut can cause periorbital edema
PPI
this drug is classified under anxiolytics is given for sedation
diazepam
for those drugs with ADR that are suspected but are not yet proven, these are 4 important clinical aspects in the clinical practivece
anticipate
avoid giving drugs that mayb cause ADR- chech hx
recognize ADR is happening
respond with proper management
These are examples of suspected ADR but not yet proven
penicillin
isotrenoin
these are beta lactam antibiotics with known hypersensiticity rxn to patien.t
penicillin
doing this procedure before administering penicillin can prevent anaphylaxis
ANST
this drug is a synthetic retinoid given oral for severe cystic acne. MOA is unknwn bu tobserved to inhibit sebaceous gland size and function
isoretinoin
these are ADR that may take years to pass before consequence can be noticed. also part i sthe drug to drug interaction is an important cause of ADR-thus imp hx
ADR that may develop as a consequence pf theraphy or other procedure
example of adr that may develop as a consequence of theraphy or other procedure
metronidazole
chlorapmphenicol
antabuse/disuluram
antihypertensice agents
this drug is classified under nitro-imidazole group that is an effective treatment of protoxoa and anaerobes inclucding bacteroides and clostridium. however can produce disulfiram effect when taken with alcohol
metronidazole
this drug us for patient to stop taking alcohol.. this increases acetaldehyde concentraiton in the blood causung the unwanted effect
disulfiram
this drug is prescribed for patients with proloned periods of couigh for two weeks. Can cause aplastic anemia if taken for more than 2 weeks
chloramphenicol
this antihypertensive agent causes cough secondary to bronchial spasm
propanolol-beta blocker
causes vasodilatrion of blood vessels including CNS and cause headaches
Nifedipine-ca channel clocker
anti hpn that can cause halitosis
captopril- ACE inhibitors
this anti hpn can be inhibited by other drugs thus loss of diuretic effect
hydrochlorothiazide-thiazide diuretic
this anti hpn can cause lupus like reaction- butterfly rash on the face
hydralizine- direct acting vasodilatior
in ADR monitoring always deteremine the ff:
brand name of the drug
whrere the drug came from.
Rawlins and Thompson classification of ADR
trype A, B, C, D, E, F
according to Rawlins and Thompson Classification of ADR, these are ADR that resutls from augemented or exaggerated form of drugs pharmacological action
Type A
Two tyoes of ADR that fall under type A
primary or extension effect
secondary or adverse reaction
this is aTYPE A ADR where the ADR is related to the drugs's known usual therapeutic action
Primary /extension effect
this is a type A ADR where the adr is different fromthe drug's known therapeutic reaction
secondary or adverse reaction
an example of primary /extention effect can be seen in
atropine
NO
propanolo
NSAIDS
this drugs primary or extension effect is dryness of the mouth
atropine
this drugs primary or extension effect is vasodilation that causes headache
NO
this drug may block beta one receptors and cause bronchoconstreiction
propanolol
this drug's primary effect is GI ulcers
NSAIDS
Rawlins and THompson classified unrelated ADR to known pharmacological reaction to the drug; idiosyncratic novel or atypical response not expected from what was known,, also known as bizzare
Type B
An example of type B reaction
Steven Johnson syndrome
this is a Type B ADR that is a mucocutaneous immunoligical reaction with epideraml ulceration. This present as erythermatoous rash that spread symmetrically over the body with eventual blister and necrosis
SJS
Known drugs to cause SJS
sulfonamides
penicillin
dialntin
bextra-cox2 inhibs
bacterial and viral infection
radiation theraphy
Rawlins and Thompson classified these ADR as effect observed due to continous drug use
TYPE C
examples of type C ADR
steroid use
ethambutol
prolong used of this drugs can cause hirsutism in females and buffalo humps
steroid use
prolonged use of this anti tb drug can cause poor visual acuity a sign of optic neuropathy.
ethambutol
Rawlins and Thompson classify these ADR that appear after several month or years
Type D or delayed
Examples of delayed ADR or type D
diethystilbestrol
alcoholism/ smoking during pregancy
a delayed ADR of this drug is vaginal carcinoma of this drug , ectopic pregnancy, consticted uterus, adenosis of cervix and vagina
diethylstilbestros
What is the delayed ADR of smoking and alcohol in pregnacy
fetal alcohol syndrome
Rawlins and Thompson classified these ADR as seen only when the drug is discontinued
Type E
example of type E ADR
clonidine
corticosteroid
opioids
the ADR of withdrawing from this drug can cause rebound hypertension and bleeding
clonidine
the withdrawal sympotom of this drug is acute adrenal insufficiency and should never be stopped abruptly
corticosteroids
ADR of this drug can cause narcotic withdrawal symptoms
opioids
what are the parameted for Type F or failed efficacy
inappropriate medicine
drug incompatability
counterfeit
tolerance
poor compliance
expired med
underdosing
the 3 predisposition of elderly to ADR
increase fx of drug use
increase sensitivity to drug
prevalence of predisposing condition
months when the baby is most vulnerable to birth defects
3rd and 8th week after fertillization
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...