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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
Westward Expansion, Causes of the Civil War
Terms in this set (75)
The desire that the U.S. is going to spread from the East coast all the way to the West coast (Pacific Ocean)
What is manifest destiny?
Napoleon of France sold Louisiana to the U.S. because he needed money desperately for his wars in Europe.
Thomas Jefferson bought it
Who sold Louisiana to the U.S. and why?
828,000 square miles of land for 15 million dollars (It cost less than 3 cents an acre)
How much land did we buy in the Louisiana Purchase and for how much money?
We doubled the size of the U.S. in one day
What effect did the Louisiana purchase have on the U.S?
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark
Who did Thomas Jefferson send to explore the Louisiana Purchase?
They started at St. Louis and headed west into lands Europeans had never seen. They were trained and were told to do experiments. They met more than 50 tribes on their way.
Describe what happened on the Lewis and Clark expedition in 3 or 4 sentences.
The U.S. vs. Britain
Who fought in the War of 1812?
Who was the President during the War of 1812?
They were kidnapping or impressing our sailors because we were trading with France, capturing our merchant ships, and they were encouraging the Native Americans to attack us on the frontier.
Why did the U.S. declare war in 1812?
the capitol and the president's mansion were burned
What happened to Washington DC during the war of 1812?
The battle of New Orleans it boosted American spirits
Where was the final battle of the War of 1812 and what were the results?
It was after the war because of the slow communication
What was unique about the final battle of the War of 1812?
Who became a national hero after the War of 1812?
We paid 5 million dollars to Spain and gave up all claims to the area of Texas
How did the U.S. get Florida in 1819?
Europe stays out of the western Hemisphere
What was the Monroe Doctrine?
What was the largest and most civilized Indian tribe?
Where did they live?
They wrote a newspaper and a constitution, They converted to christianity, and they wore American and European clothing
Give examples of how they tried to fit into the American way of life.
They sued the national government and won the case
What did the Cherokee do to try to keep from being removed from their land?
He ignored the supreme court ruling and he had congress pass the Indian removal act, and they were sent west into Indian territory (Oklahoma)
What did Andrew Jackson do to get the 5 civilized tribes removed and where were they sent?
The american army marched 15,000 creeks, and Cherokees marched through snow and sleet and 4,000 died in 1835-1838
What was the trail of tears?
The Seminoles were removed in 1834
What was the last Indian tribe to be removed from U.S. land east of the Mississippi River and when did this occur?
Because of the California gold rush, for free land, and to start a new life in caravans containing as many as 200 wagons headed west.
How did many Americans head west and why did they go west?
They started in Independence, Missouri, and ended up in either Oregon or California.
Where did the wagon trains start their journey and where did they end up?
They battled desert heat, mountain blizzards, rattlesnakes, swarms of insects, cholera, measles, thirst, and starvation. On a good day, they could travel 20 miles
Describe what the journey west on a wagon train was like.
They looked at the immigrants as trespassers and made them pay a toll of food and supplies
How did the Indians react to the immigrants crossing their land?
3. shooting accidents
How did most deaths occur on wagon trains?
4 to 6 months
How long did it take to get to Oregon?
The group of people had to resort to cannibalism to survive
What was unique about the Donner party?
Utah because it was a desert and they knew no one would bother them there. They were harassed by other Christians because of their beliefs
Where did the Mormons (Christian religion) end up and why?
In march of 1845
When was Texas annexed into the U.S.?
The U.S. because Mexico had never recognized Texas's independence and was furious about how they got annexed into the U.S. and to fulfill manifest destiny
Who started the Mexican War and why was it started?
We got the rest of modern Texas, New Mexico, Utah and California, and it also created tension between the North and the South.
What effects did the Mexican War have on the U.S.?
We got 1/3d of Mexico's land and 529,000 square miles of land
How much land did the U.S. get from Mexico in 1848?
The U.S. purchased the rest of today's U.S. for 10 million dollars in southern New Mexico and Arizona, and we also wanted to build a transcontinental railroad
What was the Gadsden Purchase?
1848 at Sutter's Mill and everyone wanted gold so thousands of people moved to California and then it became a state
When and where was gold discovered in California and what effect did this have on the U.S.?
The people who rushed to California to discover gold and get rich
Who were the forty-niners?
Wars, the mistreatment of Native Americans, Hispanics and Chinese, and HOW WOULD SLAVERY BE DETERMINED IN THE NEW LAND?
Describe problems created by westward expansion.
Missouri wanted to enter the U.S. as a slave state which created an imbalance in congress
Where would slavery be determined in the Louisiana Territory
Why did the Missouri Compromise need to be created?
Who created the Missouri Compromise?
1: Missouri would enter the union as a slave state
2: Maine is created a free state, to maintain the balance
3: Slavery would be prohibited in any new territories or states formed north of Missouri's southern border
What did the compromise do to keep the north and the south happy?
If California became a free state it would interrupt the balance of free and slave states once again.
Why was another compromise needed in 1850?
Who created this compromise?
California would come in as a free state and the slave trade would end in DC
What 2 parts of the compromise did the north like?
A more effective fugitive slave law and the slavery in the land the U.S. got from Mexico would be determined by popular sovereignty
What 2 parts of the compromise did the south like?
An anti-slavery novel revealing the realities of slavery
What was Uncle Tom's Cabin?
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Who wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin?
The south sparked outrage and they questioned the foul imagination which could invent such scenes
What effect did this book have on the people living in the South and what did the say about the book?
2 million copies were sold it created many more abolitionists and made more people in the North want to end slavery
What effect did this book have on the North?
Stephen Douglas, Senator
Who created the Kansas-Nebraska Act and what political office did he hold?
To organize the Louisiana Territory so a transcontinental railroad would run through his state and help its economy
Why did he create this law?
It established Kansas and Nebraska territories and in those territories slavery was determined by people voting
What did this law say?
They thought it was a terrible plot to turn free territory into a dreary region
Why was the North very angry about this law?
They were fighting to determine if Kansas would be a free or slave state
In 1856, why were pro-slavery and anti-slavery people killing each other in Kansas Territory?
Who was involved in much of the fighting because he was an extreme abolitionist?
He was the slave of Dr. John Emerson and he had become free when he lived in free territory
Who was Dred Scott and why was he suing the U.S. government?
Roger B. Taney argued against Scott's reasoning and also stated that his status (free or slave), depended on the laws of Missouri
Why did he lose his court case?
Now it would be possible for slavery to spread
Why were the southerners happy with the Supreme Court's decision?
Places that were once free now might become slave
Why were the northerners angry with the Supreme Court's decision?
They were both running for Senator of Illinois
Why were Stephen Douglas and Abraham Lincoln debating in 1858?
What was the main topic of the debate
Lincoln stressed the spreading of slavery in the west and Douglas criticized Lincoln for saying that the nation could not remain half slave and half free.
What was each candidate's stance on the main topic of the debate?
Who won the election?
A federal arsenal in Virginia
What was Harpers Ferry and where was it located?
John Brown wanted to attack the arsenal in hopes of starting a slave rebellion
Who planned the raid and what actions did he take?
John Brown's sons were killed he was captured put on trial for treason and found guilty and was executed
What were the results of the raid?
Brown was trying to start a slave rebellion
Why did the raid on Harpers Ferry take place?
Southern Democrat John C. Breckenridge, John Bell of the Constitutional Union party, Republican Abraham Lincoln and Northern Democrat Stephen Douglas
Who were the candidates in the presidential election of 1860 and what political parties did they represent?
Lincoln: The nation could not remain half slave and half free
Douglas: Vote on slavery in the new territiories
Breckinridge: Slavery everywhere
Bell: Continue to compromise follow the constitution
Describe what each of the following candidates believed in regards to slavery:
Lincoln because the Democrats split and Lincoln carried the more populated North
Who won the election of 1860 and why?
The southern states started to secede (leave) the U.S.
What happened after Lincoln won the election?
When was the Confederate States of America formed?
Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina and North Carolina
Name the 11 states that the Union in 1863.
Who was the president of the Confederated States of America?
Where was the capital of the Confederate States of America?
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