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red/black urine = presence of red blood cells

evidence of malaria

sweet tasting = presence of glucose

evidence of diabetes

homeostatic regulation of water and ion content of blood

kidney function 1


maintenance of a constant internal environment

excretion of waste and foreign substances

kidney function 2

production of hormones

kidney function 3


functional unit of the kidney

bowman's capsule

small molecules filtered out into

proximal tubule

70% fluids and solutes reabsorbed, water follows by osmosis

loop of henle

90% fluids reabsorbed, less water follows

distal tubule/collecting duct

99% fluids reabsorbed, water and solutes reabsorbed if needed

nephron carries out

filtration, absorption, secretion and excretion

osmolarity changes

as fluid passes through the nephron

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