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Topic 8: Differentiation and derivatives of the pharyngeal pouches and clefts. Malformations
Terms in this set (13)
pharyngeal arches, pharyngeal pouches and clefts
What does the pharyngeal apparatus consist of?
Pharyngeal pouches= formed by endoderm
Pharyngeal clefts= formed by ectoderm
Pharyngeal arches= formed by mesoderm
What germ layers are the different parts of the pharyngeal apparatus formed by?
5, of which the fifth is rudimentary and doesn't form anything.
There are 4 pharyngeal clefts.
How many pharyngeal pouches and clefts do we have?
They are invaginations on the inside of the pharyngeal apparatus, lined by endoderm
What are the pharyngeal pouches?
They are invaginations on the outside of the pharyngeal apparatus, lined by ectoderm
What are the pharyngeal clefts?
Tympanic cavity, eustachian tube, internal aspect of tympanic membrane
What are the derivatives of the first pharyngeal pouch?
Palatine tonsils, tonsillar fossa
What are the derivatives of the second pharyngeal pouch?
Dorsal wing -> inferior parathyroid glands
Ventral wing -> thymus
What are the derivatives of the third pharyngeal pouch?
Dorsal wing -> superior parathyroid glands
Ventral wing -> ultimobranchial body -> parafollicular cells of thyroid gland
What are the derivatives of the fourth pharyngeal pouch?
The external auditory meatus comes not from the first pharyngeal cleft but from an invagination in the first pharyngeal arch
The first pharyngeal cleft disappears as the second pharyngeal arch grows
What are the derivatives of the first pharyngeal clefts?
The other pharyngeal clefts form the cervical sinus when the second pharyngeal arch grows
The cervical sinus later obliterates
What are the derivatives of 2-> 4 pharyngeal clefts and the cervical sinus?
If the third and fourth pharyngeal arches are never covered by the second, the second to fourth pharyngeal clefts will remain in contact with the outside through a small canal called the branchial fistula
What is a branchial fistula?
If the cervical sinus doesn't obliterate it remains as a lateral cervical cyst
What is a lateral cervical cyst?
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