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Terms in this set (120)
What's the biggest difference between Bacteria and Archaea?
Archaea do not have peptidoglycan in their cell walls, whereas bacteria do.
How might our gut (intestinal) microbiota help prevent disease?
They occupy space and nutrients that pathogenic microbes would otherwise utilize.
Which of these does best describes viruses?
Choose the most accurate statement.
The majority of microbes are beneficial. Only a small number in comparison are pathogenic.
Pretend you just accidentally ingested something that you later found out consisted of transient microbiota. Should you be concerned?
No, because they will just pass through without causing any harm.
Which of these statements best describes algae?
They are primary producers, using photosynthesis to create their own food and supply both food and oxygen to other organisms.
Which domain do fungi belong to?
In the name, Staphylococcus epidermidis, which word is the genus?
Which of these best describes helminths?
They are eukaryotic.
What's the main component of cell walls in fungi?
Which of these is not one of Louis Pasteur's many accomplishments?
Development of Koch's Postulates
True/False: Biofilms are only harmful.
Which of these is a potential application of Recombinant DNA Technology?
1.Protein synthesis (e.g. insulin)
2.Vaccine production (e.g. influenza)
The concept of biogenesis would be supported by which of these statements?
A test tube of broth left out in the open over time develops heavy microbial growth.
Which of these is an example of bioremediation?
Using genetically-modified bacteria to clean up an oil spill
If I wanted to learn more about SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19), which of these experts would be of most help?
Robert Hooke's observations marked the beginning of which theory?
Which of these is an example of an infectious disease?
common cold, HIV/AIDS, influenza
True/False: The natural forms of most elements in the environment are usable by all organisms.
Which of these would qualify as a candidate for Ehrlich's "magic bullet"?
An antiviral drug that gets rid of infection and also boosts immunity
Possible evidence for the endosymbiotic theory stems from which two organelles?
mitochondria & chloroplasts
Gram-positive bacteria contain which of the following?
Teichoic acid, a dummy thicc, rigid structure, Peptidoglycan
Which of these organisms contain cellulose in their cell walls?
Which is true about endocytosis?
materials are moved into the cell
True/False: Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes are similar in that they both contain membrane-bound organelles.
Which of these organelles can be described as a factory for secreted proteins and molecules to be incorporated into the plasma membrane?
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
What is the primary purpose of flagella?
The main difference between fimbriae and pili is _________.
fimbriae are numerous and serve the function of adhesion, whereas pili function in motility/DNA transfer and are few in number.
True/False: The glycocalyx is present in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes.
Which of the following subunits make up a eukaryotic ribosome?
60S + 40S = 80S ribosome
True/False: An enzyme that normally has a cofactor can still function even without the cofactor attached.
What kind of reaction drives the main energy production mechanisms?
If an organism uses redox reactions on inorganic/organic compounds as a source of energy, and carbon dioxide as its source of carbon, what would it be classified as?
True/False: Catalysts (and by extension, enzymes) function by increasing the temperature of reactions.
Which of these factors is least likely to affect enzymatic activity?
time of day
Which of these temperature groups can tolerate the most amount of heat?
After one cycle of a generation time, the population ____________?
Nitrogen is mainly used in the synthesis of what macromolecule?
Bacteria can produce by which of these methods?
Budding, Binary Fission
Which of these bacterial growth measurements relies on statistics to estimate growth?
most probable number (MPN)
What do we do to bacterial cultures (since there are so many bacteria normally!) to bring them down to countable numbers?
If there is no net flow of water in or out of the cell, the solution is said to be __________?
A microbe's temperature classification is defined by which of these?
minimum growth temperature, maximum growth temperature, optimum growth temperature
Which of these phases on the bacterial growth curve exhibits the highest metabolic activity?
Which of these benefits from oxygen the most?
Which of these is a benefit of using phenolics?
stability, remains on surfaces longer, usable in the presence of organic material
True/False: Gram-positive bacteria are generally more susceptible to antimicrobials
Which of these methods is the most effective at getting rid of microbes?
Desiccation refers to __________?
loss of water
Which of these is the most resistant to antimicrobials?
True/False: Longer exposure to antimicrobials has a significant impact on the effectiveness of disinfection.
How does heat kill microbes?
Which of these are methods of evaluating the effectiveness of an antimicrobial?
Disk diffusion method, Use-dilution test
Which of these terms involves killing microbes?
True/False: Incinerating is an example of moist-heat sterilization.
Which two terms best describe DNA strands?
antiparallel & complementary
How many nucleotides constitute one codon?
Which of these is not a method of Horizontal Gene Transfer?
conjugation, transduction, transformation
If my DNA template was ATGCGA, what would my mRNA transcript look like?
Genetics is the science of __________?
Which of these is a main type of RNA found in transcription and translation?
ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA, messenger RNA
Which of these nitrogenous base pairings in DNA is correct?
True/False: ALL genes are regulated to ensure that protein synthesis is not wasteful.
Which of these is not a component of DNA?
deoxyribose, nitrogenous base, phosphate
True/False: DNA strands are held together by ionic bonding.
What is the name of a cell that has been stripped of its cell wall?
Which of these is a reason why site-directed mutagenesis is preferable over random mutagen exposure?
It's controlled, It's much more time-efficient
True/False: Restriction enzymes cut at the same sites every time.
Which of these is the most probable goal of a bacterium with a successfully cloned gene?
Cloning the bacterium to make and harvest copies of the gene, Harvesting the protein/products that result from the gene
True/False: All cells are naturally able to transform (relating to competence).
Which enzyme plays a pivotal role in creating complementary DNA (cDNA)?
Whether or not an organism secretes its proteins/products is an important factor in harvesting gene products. With that in mind, which of these cell types would be the least viable to harvest from?
Which of these is a limitation/drawback of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)?
You can only amplify small segments of DNA at a time
Which of these is a product of recombinant DNA technology?
human growth hormone, insulin, Hepatitis B vaccine
When would you want to use a gene gun?
When working with plants/cells with thick cell walls
Which of these taxa is lowest on the taxonomical hierarchy?
Which of these definitions best describes phylogeny?
study of the evolutionary history of organisms
Which two domains are more closely associated?
Bacteria and Archaea
Who initially proposed a two kingdom system for taxonomy in 1735?
True/False: All bacterial strains are genetically identical.
Which of these words is matched with the definition?
sign; objective changes that an outsider can measure, syndrome; group of signs & symptoms that go with a certain disease, microbial antagonism; microbes competing with each other for space and nutrients
A relationship in which a virus destroys respiratory cells would be classified as ___________?
If I wanted to know how many people contracted HIV within the last year, which epidemiological measure would I need to look at?
Which of these is not one of Koch's Postulates?
Pathogen must be isolated and cultured from diseased individual,
Inoculating a healthy individual must present the same disease,
Organism must be re-isolated from diseased individual & matched to the original
Which of these would not be considered a source of a Healthcare-Associated Infection (HAI)?
hospital, nursing home, clinic
Congenital transmission involves what kind of contact?
mother / fetus
Which of these would be considered a vector of transmission?
Diseases can only be transmitted via direct contact.
True/False: An opportunistic pathogen is able to infect healthy, normal functioning hosts.
Which of these periods in the development of a disease are we able to transmit the pathogen?
Period of Illness, Period of Convalescence, Incubation Period
What has to happen before phagocytes can attach to foreign microbes?
Which of these granulocytes is most responsible for immune responses towards larger parasites/worms?
Which of these leukocytes are phagocytic?
dendritic cell, macrophage, neutrophil
Which of these occurs during inflammation?
A) increase in blood vessel permeability
B) decrease in blood vessel permeability
C) blood vessel diameter extension
D) blood vessel diameter constriction
A and C
True/False: Fever always has beneficial effects on the body
Which of these would be considered a Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP)?
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Flagellin, Peptidoglycan
True/False: The skin is easily penetrateable by microbes and, thus, relies heavily on other lines of defense to keep pathogens out.
What do Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) have to bind to in order to initiate an immune response?
Which of these is a beneficial function of inflammation?
to destroy and/or remove injurious agents and products,
to limit the effects that injurious agents have on the body,
to replace/repair damaged host tissue caused by injurious agents
How does a microbe get engulfed during phagocytosis?
Pseudopods extend, surrounding the microbe
How many protein chains make up a bivalent antibody?
2 heavy chains, 2 light chains
Antigens have different sites on which antibodies can bind called ____________?
Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) present foreign antigens to what kind of cells?
Which cytokine is used primarily by leukocytes as a means of communication?
True/False: During the secondary response/infection, the adaptive immune response is faster than innate.
Which of these would be an outcome of antigen-antibody interactions?
Clumping antigens together,
Blocking attachment of pathogens/toxins
True/False: CD8+ T cells don't kill cells directly, but rather direct other cells to do the killing.
Antibodies play a pivotal role in which type of immunity?
Which of the following would be considered an antigen? (assume healthy immune system)
lipopolysaccharide, flagellin, peptidoglycan
Which of the following types of T helper cell specializes in suppressing T cells that attack/target "self" cells?
Degradative metabolism that produces (releases) energy which is stored as ATP.
A well-organized and firmly attached glycocalyx which provides protection against phagocytosis is called a _________________.
Disease-causing microorganisms are called ________________.
Yeasts and molds belong to a group of microorganisms called the _____________.
______________ is the term used describe the use of microorganisms to clean up or detoxify pollutants or toxic materials.
______________ are cellular organisms with few internal cell structures and no membrane-bound nucleus.
Scientist or physician who used cowpox virus to successfully vaccinate patients against the smallpox virus.
Scientist or physician who pioneered the used of antiseptics/disinfectants during surgery to greatly reduce the risk of post-operative infections.
Morphological term used to describe microorganisms displaying a spherical or "berry-like" shape.
Some bacteria can form _______________ which are highly resistant resting or dormant entities.
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