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62 terms

Psychology-Ch. 4-The Nature of Consciousness

The Nature of Consciousness
STUDY
PLAY
William James
described the mind as a stream of consciousness
stream of consciousness
a continuous flow of changing sensations, images, thoughts, and feelings
awareness and arousal
We can define consciousness in terms of its two parts?
Consciousness
is an individual's awareness of external events and internal sensations under a condition of arousal.
Awareness
includes awareness of the self and one's thoughts about one's experiences.
metacognition
refers to thinking about thinking
Awareness
Consider that on an autumn afternoon, when you see a beautiful tree, vibrant with color, you are not simply perceiving the colors EXAMPLE OF?
arousal
the physiological state of being engaged with the environment.
Awareness
the subjective state of being conscious of what is going on.
Awareness
Aspect of consciousness that typically involves the cerebral cortex, especially its association areas and frontal lobes
Arousal
is a physiological state determined by the reticular activating system, a network of structures including the brain stem, medulla, and thalamus
coma.
Damage to either the cerebral cortex or the reticular activating system may cause a .........
higher-level consciousness, lower-level consciousness, altered states of consciousness, subconscious awareness, and no awareness
five levels of awareness?
Controlled Processing
the most alert states of human consciousness, individuals actively focus their efforts toward a goal
Controlled Processing
observe a classmate as he struggles to master the unfamiliar buttons on his new 10-function cell phone. He does not hear you humming or notice the intriguing shadow on the wall. His state of focused awareness illustrates the idea of ?
Controlled Processing
level of awareness that requires selective attention
selective attention
the ability to concentrate on a specific aspect of experience while ignoring others
higher-level consciousness/Controlled processing
Which level of awareness involves controlled processing?
higher-level consciousness/Controlled processing
Which level of awareness? Doing a math or science problem
higher-level consciousness/Controlled processing
Which level of awareness? preparing for a debate
higher-level consciousness/Controlled processing
Which level of awareness? taking an at-bat in a baseball game
automatic processes and daydreaming.
Lower levels of awareness include.....
automatic processes
A few weeks after acquiring his cell phone, your classmate flips it open and sends a text message in the middle of a conversation with you. He does not have to concentrate on the keys and hardly seems aware of the gadget in his hand as he continues to talk to you while finishing his lunch. Using his cell phone has reached the point of?
automatic processes
are states of consciousness that require little attention and do not interfere with other ongoing activities.
automatic processes
require less conscious effort than controlled processes
lower
When we are awake, our automatic behaviors occur at a ______level of awareness than controlled processes, but they are still conscious behaviors.
Daydreaming
lies between active consciousness and dreaming while asleep
Daydreaming
It is a little like dreaming while we are awake.
Daydreaming
usually begin spontaneously when we are doing something that requires less than our full attention.
Daydreaming
Mind wandering is probably the most obvious type of what?
Daydreaming
keeps our minds active while helping us to cope, create, and fantasize
Altered states of consciousness or awareness
are mental states that are noticeably different from normal awareness.
Altered states of consciousness or awareness
can range from losing one's sense of self-consciousness to hallucinating.
Altered states of consciousness or awareness
This states can be produced by drugs, trauma, fever, fatigue, sensory deprivation, meditation, and possibly hypnosis
awareness
When we are awake, processes are going on just below the surface of .....
Subconscious Awareness
while you are grappling with a problem, the solution may just pop into your head. EXAMPLE OF?
conscious processing
occurs in sequence and is slower than much subconscious processing.
low levels of consciousness.
sleep and dreams are not best regarded as the absence of consciousness, Rather, they are....
unconscious
generally applies to someone who has been knocked out by a blow or anesthetized, or who has fallen into a deep, prolonged unconscious state
Unconscious thought
Sigmund Freud states ______ is a reservoir of unacceptable wishes, feelings, and thoughts that are beyond conscious awareness.
unconscious
Freud's interpretation viewed the ______ as a storehouse for vile thoughts.
Sigmund Freud
He believed that some aspects of our experience remain unconscious for good reason, as if we are better off not knowing about them.
Sigmund Freud
For example, from ______ perspective, the human mind is full of disturbing impulses such as a desire to have sex with our parents.
nonconscious
Recently, researchers have found that many mental processes (thoughts, emotions, and perceptions) can occur outside of awareness. Some psychologists term these processes.....
Metacognition
refers to thinking about thinking. The awareness of thinking about something can have survival benefits.
consciousness
refers to a person's awareness of external events and internal sensations.
consciousness
A sleeping person is not in the same state of _____ as when they are awake
consciousness
Neuroscientists do not believe there is a specific place in the brain for ______. They believe there are separate processing systems that connect to produce it.
Awareness
state of consciousness that typically takes place in the cerebral cortex.
arousal
state of consciousness that occurs in the brain stem, medulla, and thalamus.
Controlled processes
are the most alert states of consciousness.
Higher-Level Consciousness
At this level, individuals actively direct their attention toward a goal.
automatic processes
of lower-level awareness are states of consciousness that require little attention and do not interfere with other activities.
Daydreaming
lies between active consciousness and dreaming while asleep.
Daydreaming
Mind wandering is the most well known type of......
Daydreaming
can be useful in that in this state a person may be making plans, solving problems, or coming up with a creative idea.
Altered states of consciousness
are mental states that are noticeably different from normal awareness.
Altered states of consciousness
can be brought about through drugs, trauma, fatigue, sensory deprivation, and possibly hypnosis.
subconscious awareness
During wakefulness, processes are occurring just below the surface of awareness. CALLED?
sleep and dreaming
During ___ AND ___, the level of awareness is below what it is during daydreaming.
unconscious
When a person is _____, he or she has normally been knocked out by a blow or is under anesthesia.
unconscious thought
Sigmund Freud believed that ____ _______ was where a person keeps unacceptable wishes, feelings, and thoughts that are beyond their awareness.