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Air Pollution (Ch.14)
Terms in this set (16)
Primary vs. Secondary pollutant
Primary - when you turn your car on, what is coming out of the tailpipe (you're putting it right into the air)
Secondary - Substance coming out of tailpipe and floats around creating new gases
Mobile or fixed sources - which is harder to measure?
Mobile - car
Fixed - power plant/factories
Fixed is easier and mobile is harder
What is residence time - what factors influence it?
How long pollution lasts in the atmosphere
Factors: gravity or reactions
What is the primary pollutant given off by people?
What is the primary way air pollution is generated?
What does CO do?
Reduces body's ability to carry oxygen and you can pass out
What is a particulate? What is PM 2.5 and PM 10? More dangerous?
Particulate - particles
PM 2.5 and 10 are sizes
2.5 is more dangerous because they are bigger and your body has no way of getting rid of them
Good and Bad Ozone -understand the differences
Good - ozone above us in stratosphere which blocks out incoming radiation
Bad - ozone we are breathing in right now which comes from combustion which can cause breathing problems
What did CFC's do? What and where is the primary ozone hole?
Chemicals used in the 1950s which went up into the stratosphere and destroyed the ozone creating holes in the polar regions
What have air pollution levels done in the US over the last 30 years (on average)
Air pollution has decreased we have much tighter regulations
What role does wind and stability play in pollution levels?
The windier it is the less polluted the environment is because it carries it away
Stability - upward and downward motion
Ex) If you are polluting and the atmosphere is unstable the pollution will float up and dilute upward
But if the atmosphere is stable then the pollution will not move
What pressure systems maximize pollution levels? Why?
High pressure - sinking motion with stable conditions can maximize pollution
Low pressure - rising motion and upward unstable which means cleaner air
What is the Urban Heat Island effect?
Cities stay warmer because they are darker with the pavement. There is a lot of pollution which traps in the outgoing heat
What is acid deposition? What is natural acid rain vs manmade acid rain?
Acid deposition - we burn things creating sulfuric acid so when rain falls it is acidic
(rain is naturally acidic)
If there were not people on Earth the rain would have a pH of 5.6
Less than 5 is manmade acid
Where is acid precipitation the worst in the US? Why?
We are the industrial states, there is a lot of coal and carbon based things which are burned in the U.S.
What is the primary impact of acid rain? Can we do anything?
1) Building, structures, paint
2) Environment - (Hydrological) There are some lakes which are uninhabitable because the water is so acidic
We can cut back on the things that are causing the water to be so acidic like sulfur and burning coal. Or putting base to neutralize it.
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