Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Systemic Opportunistic Infections
Terms in this set (82)
T or F: Primary Pulmonary Cryptococcosis is usually discovered accidentally.
TRUE via routine CXR; it is subclinical
Disseminated cryptococcosis has predilection for what organ system?
Most common cause of fungal meningitis?
Predominant clinical manifestation: meningitis
MC symptoms: fever and headache
Encapsulated basidiomycete yeast-like fungus with predilection for the respiratory and nervous system.
C. neoformans vs C. gatti: worldwide
C. neoformans vs C. gatti: saprophyte of soil especially those enriched with avian excreta (pigeon droppings)
C. neoformans vs C. gatti: What are their capsular serotypes
C. neoformans: A and D
C. gatti: B and C
C. neoformans vs C. gatti: can infect immunocompetent
BOTH but mostly gatti;
lower mortality but more severe neurologic sequelae secondary tp CNS granuloma formation.
C. neoformans vs C. gatti geographically restricted
*areas with eucalyptus trees
C. neoformans vs C. gattii: cryptococcoma
These are large mass lesions or localized solid tumor-like masses usually located in the cerebral hemispheres or cerebellum.
Give 2 C. neoformans varieties and their respective capsular seroptype.
C. neoformans grubi - A
C. neoformans neoformans - D
This fungi replicates via budding from a relatively narrow base
In India ink, this fungi appears spherical-elliptical and is surrounded by optically clear smoothly contour spherical zones or halos which represents ______ and is a distinctive marker with a diameter measurement of ______.
Extracellular polysaccharide capsules
up to 5x the size of the fungal cell
Capsule of Cryptococcus sp is easily visualized with what stains?
Mucin stains like:
*Stains poorly with H&E like Candida and Aspergillus
The cell wall of C. neoformans contains ______ which is demonstrated by using what stain?
Major opportunistic pathogen of AIDS patients
2nd most common sign of disseminated cryptococcosis in AIDS px
Cryptococcosis of the bone lesions are described as _____ and symptom is usually ______ upon movement,
lytic lesions without periosteal reaction
Ocular cryptococcosis usually include __ and __ due to raised ICP
papilledema and optical atrophy
Cryptococcus are urease (+)/(-)
Describe colonies of Cryptococcus sp.
Red-orange or yellow carotenoid pigment but mostly non-pigmented cream
Doe it ferment sugar?
Sugar - NO
Nitrate - variable
Inositol - YES
Method of choide for dx of cryptococcal meningitis
Detection of cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide ANTIGEN in CSF
100% of AIDS patient is (+) but less sensitive in non-AIDS px (60%)
Serum specimens of Cryptococcal meningitis must be pre-treated with ____ to enhance antigen detection.
Appropriate antifungal therapy for Cryptococcosis
Induction therapy (Amphotericin B + Flucytosine) for 2 weeks
Oral fluconazole/itraconazole for 8 weeks
Maintenance therapy for AIDS px with cryptococcosis
Differentiate clinical manifestation of Aspergillosis in hypersensitized host vs Immunosuppressed hosts.
Hypersensitized: allergic reaction
Immunosuppressed: disruptive/invasive disease
This occurs due to ingestion of fungi-contaminated food such as Aspergillus
Most common human pathogen among Aspergillus species
Aspergillus spp grow in culture as?
Definitive diagnosis of Aspergilliosis
Microscopic identification of hyphae and structure of conidial head.
Grow as branched septate hyphae that produce conidial heads when exposed to air.
Aspergillus hyphae stains poorly in ___ but is visualized well with ____
PAS, GMS, Gridley fungal stains
The hyphae of this fungi has regular septations, parallel contours and progressive tree-like pattern of branching. They are dichotomous and are usually at acute angles.
This aspergillus species develop spherical or oval aleurioconidia that develop from the lateral walls of the mycelium.
T or F: aspergillus ate continually being inhaled because they are ubiquitous in air, soil and decaying matter.
Most frequent and most important portal of entry for Aspergillus spp.
Development of IgE to surface antigens of Aspergillus leading to development of asthma, recurrent chest infiltrates, eosinophilia and (+) Type 1 and 3 skin test hypersensitivity.
Allergic BronchoPulmonary Aspergilliosis (ABPA)
*normal hosts exposed to massive doses of conidia can develop extrinsic allergic alveolitis
Inhaled aspergillus conidia germinate and produce abundant hyphae in the abnormal pulmonary space such as previous cavitary lesions due to past tuberculosis infection
Aspergilloma aka Fungus ball formation
AIDS px with this CD4 count are at risk for invasive aspergillosis
Saprophytic colonization of preformed cavities presenting with elevated IgE against Aspergillus and (+) immunodiffusion precipitin test to Ab for Aspergillus. No symptoms noted only found by accident on CXR.
Non-invasive aspergillosis aka aspergilloma
Acute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis serum antibody precipitin result
vs. non-invasive and aspergilloma na (+)
Differentiate the 2 types of paranasal sinus aspergillosis
1. non-invasive aspergilloma form in healthy individuals
2. invasive form in immunosuppressed individuals similar to rhinocerebral zygomycosis.
This Aspergillus spp is resistant to amphotericin B
Give 2 antifungals used to treat Asperililosis
Variconazole and Amphotericin B
Mucormycosis principal human pathogens:
Mucorales and Entomophthorales
Compare hyphae branching of Aspergillus and Mucromycetes
Aspergillus: progressives tree like pattern
Mucormyctes: non-progressive haphazard pattern
The walls of hyphae of this fungi is thin and is weakly stained by GMS but is greatly stained by H&E
vs yung ibang fungi na weakly stained by H&E like candida, cryptococcus and aspergillus
Ribbon-like aseptate or sparsely septate moniliaceous nonpigmented hyphae
Most common cause of human mucormycosis
Can spread through aircon
Aspergillus and Mucormycetes
Prognosis of Mucormycosis
Tissue for Mucormycetes culture should be?
minced not homogenized
*but dx cant be based on culture alone ha
First line therapy for mucormycosis?
Mucormycetes are not susceptible to echinocandins and azoles except posaconazole.
Most acute and fulminate fungal infection known
Zygomycosis in debilitated px
Infecting fungi of zygomycosis has predilection for invading blood vessels of ____ system.
This agent should not be used in culture media when trying to grown Zygomycetes.
Fungi characterized by primitive coencytic hyphae
Sexual reproduction of zygomycetes occurs by production of thick-walled sexual resting spores called
Zygomycosis due to entomophthoraceous fungi are caused by species of 2 genera namely:
Splendore-Heppley phenomenon is associated with what fungal organism?
Differentiate Zygomycoses caused by mucoraceous fungi from those caused by entomophthoraceous fungi
Entomophthoraceous fungi are not angio-invasive BUT they cause prolific inflammatory response and are associated with Splendore-Heoppli phenomena.
Zygomycosis by basidiobolus ranarum vs conidiobolus sp: target population age
Zygomycosis by basidiobolus ranarum vs conidiobolus sp: male or female predominance
Zygomycosis by basidiobolus ranarum vs conidiobolus sp: present as subcutaneous nodules (movable from SQ) limited to limbs, chest, back and buttocks.
Zygomycosis by basidiobolus ranarum vs conidiobolus sp: typically restricted to nasal submucosa
Direct microscopy of H&E stained specimen shows hyphae surrounded by an eosinophilic sheath. What is this finding called? What is the fungi?
Most common CNS presentation of phaeohyphomycosis?
Conidia of this organism are dematiaceous, muriform and smooth or rough and taper towards the distal end with short beak at their apices.
Alternaria spp. under Phaeohyphomycoses
Phaeohyphomycoses: Bipolaris and Exserohilium cause ____ in normal atopic or asthmatic hosts while ____ in immunocompromised.
Candida albicans is the 3rd most common cause of?
central-line associated bloodstream infection (BSI)
Candida: most common species and 2nd most common
Most common: C albicans
2nd: C: glabrata
candida species produce ovoid or spherical budding yeast cell with buds or blastoconidia, pseudohyphae and true hyphae except for ___ which cant form germ tubes or true hyphae.
Candida species that form germ tubes and terminal thick-walled chlamydoconidia
Candida does not stain well with __ but stains well with ___
Gridley fungus stains
Describe culture colonies of Candida
Smooth creamy dome shaped colonies but can undergo phenotypic switching into fuzzy/hairy colonies.
Primary site of Candida spp colonization in humans
GIT (mouth to rectum)
Most predominant source of infection caused by Candida spp?
Candida lesion where there is non-removable white thickening of the epithelium
Candida lesion that presentsa s raw bleeding surface when scraped
Pseudomembranous type of candida lesion
Flat red sore areas (candida spp lesion)
erythematous type of candida lesion
Candida infection with sore fissues at the corners of the mouthq
Recommended textbook explanations
Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Peter V Minorsky, Steven A. Wasserman
Campbell Biology (AP Edition)
Cain, Campbell, Minorsky, Reece, Urry, Wasserman
Fundamentals of Biochemistry
Charlotte W. Pratt, Donald Voet, Judith G. Voet
Biocalculus: Calculus, Probability, and Statistics for the Life Sciences
Sets found in the same folder
Cutaneous and SQ Mycoses
Intro to Mycology
Other sets by this creator
PHARMA2: Module 1
Intro to Death Investigation
1.3 Central Vascular Surgery
Other Quizlet sets
6th Grade ELA Quizlet Study Guide
motor system lecture 2 - cerebellum
NU508 Quiz 4