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Psychology- CH. 4 Psychoactive Drugs

Psychoactive Drugs
STUDY
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Psychoactive Drugs
act on the nervous system to alter consciousness, modify perceptions, and change moods.
tolerance
Continued use of psychoactive drugs leads to......
tolerance
the need to take increasing amounts of a drug to get the same effect
tolerance
the first time someone takes 5 milligrams of the tranquilizer Valium, the person feels very relaxed. However, after taking the pill every day for six months, the individual may need to consume twice as much to achieve the same calming effect. example of?
physical dependence
the physiological need for a drug that causes unpleasant withdrawal symptoms such as physical pain and a craving for the drug when it is discontinued.
Psychological dependence
is the strong desire to repeat the use of a drug for emotional reasons, such as a feeling of well-being and reduction of stress.
addiction
Experts on drug abuse use the term ______ to describe either a physical or psychological dependence, or both, on the drug
Psychoactive drugs
THESE increase dopamine levels in the brain's reward pathways
ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc)
THE REWARD PATHWAY THAT INCREASE DOPAMINE LEVELS IN PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS IS LOCATED IN?
limbic and prefrontal; VTA
Only the ___ AND ____areas of the brain are directly activated by dopamine, which comes from the ____
reward pathway; dopamine
Although different drugs have different mechanisms of action, each drug increases the activity of the ______ by increasing ____ transmission.
ventral tegmental area (VTA); nucleus accumbens (NAc); VTA ; NAc; prefrontal cortex; VTA; NAc
The _____and ____are important locations in the reward pathway for psychoactive drugs. Information travels from the ____to the _____ and then up to the ____. The ____ is located in the midbrain just above the pons, and the ____ is located in the forebrain, just beneath the prefrontal cortex.
depressants, stimulants, and hallucinogens
Three main categories of psychoactive drugs are....... WHICH . All have the potential to cause health or behavior problems or both.
depressants
are psychoactive drugs that slow down mental and physical activity.
alcohol, barbiturates, tranquilizers, and opiates.
Among the most widely used depressants are.....
gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA),
Alcohol also increases the concentration of the neurotransmitter _____ which is widely distributed in many brain areas, including the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens (
frontal cortex
Researchers believe that the ___ holds a memory of the pleasure involved in prior alcohol use and contributes to continued drinking.
judgment and impulse control
Alcohol consumption also may affect the areas of the frontal cortex involved in ___ AND ___
basal ganglia
It is further believed that the ____, which are involved in compulsive behaviors, may lead to a greater demand for alcohol, regardless of reason and consequences
alcohol
After caffeine, THIS is the most widely used drug in the United States
Alcoholism
is the third leading killer in the United States.
Alcoholism
is a disorder that involves long-term, repeated, uncontrolled, compulsive, and excessive use of alcoholic beverages and that impairs the drinker's health and social relationships.
Barbiturates
Nembutal and Seconal are considered?
Barbiturates
are depressant drugs that decrease central nervous system activity.
Barbiturates
Physicians once widely prescribed THIS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG as sleep aids.
Barbiturates
In heavy dosages, they can lead to impaired memory and decision making.
Barbiturates
When combined with alcohol (for example, sleeping pills taken after a night of binge drinking), THIS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG can be lethal.
Barbiturates
are the drug most often used in suicide attempts.
Barbiturates
Abrupt OF THIS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG withdrawal can produce seizures. Because of the addictive potential and relative ease of toxic overdose,THIS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG have largely been replaced by tranquilizers in the treatment of insomnia.
Tranquilizers
Valium and Xanax, ARE WHAT KIND OF PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG?
Tranquilizers
are depressant drugs that reduce anxiety and induce relaxation.
Tranquilizers
In small doses THIS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG can induce a feeling of calm; higher doses can lead to drowsiness and confusion.
Tranquilizers
Tolerance for THIS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG can develop within a few weeks of usage, and these drugs are addictive.
Tranquilizers
Widely prescribed in the United States to calm anxious individuals, THIS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG can produce withdrawal symptoms when use is stopped
Opiates
consist of opium and its derivatives and depress the central nervous system's activity.
Opiates
ALSO KNOWN AS NARCOTICS
Opiates
These drugs are used as powerful painkillers.
Opiates
The most common OF THIS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG ARE morphine and heroin
Opiates
THIS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG affect synapses in the brain that use endorphins as their neurotransmitter
Opiates
When these drugs leave the brain, the affected synapses become understimulated.
Opiates
For several hours after taking THIS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG the person feels euphoric and pain-free and has an increased appetite for food and sex.
Opiates
THIS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG are highly addictive, and users experience craving and painful withdrawal when the drug becomes unavailable.
Stimulants
are psychoactive drugs that increase the central nervous system's activity.
caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, and cocaine.
The most widely used stimulants are ......
caffeine
is the world's most widely used psychoactive drug.
caffeine
is a stimulant and a natural component of the plants that are the sources of coffee, tea, and cola drinks.
caffeine
is present in chocolate, in many nonprescription medications, and in energy drinks such as Red Bull.
caffeine
People often perceive the stimulating effects of THIS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG as beneficial for boosting energy and alertness, but some experience unpleasant side effects.
Caffeinism
refers to an overindulgence in caffeine.
Caffeinism
THIS is characterized by mood changes, anxiety, and sleep disruption.
Caffeinism
THIS often develops in people who drink five or more cups of coffee (at least 500 milligrams) each day.
Caffeinism
Common symptoms OF THIS are insomnia, irritability, headaches, ringing ears, dry mouth, increased blood pressure, and digestive problems
caffeine
affects the brain's pleasure centers, so it is not surprising that it is difficult to kick the THIS habit.
caffeine
When individuals who regularly consume beverages WITH THIS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG from their diet, they typically experience headaches, lethargy, apathy, and concentration difficulties. These symptoms of withdrawal are usually mild and subside after several days.
Nicotine
is the main psychoactive ingredient in all forms of smoking and smokeless tobacco.
Nicotine
stimulates the brain's reward centers by raising dopamine levels.
Nicotine
Behavioral effects of THIS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG include improved attention and alertness, reduced anger and anxiety, and pain relief
Nicotine
Tolerance develops for THIS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG both in the long run and on a daily basis, so that cigarettes smoked later in the day have less effect than those smoked earlier.
Nicotine
Withdrawal from THIS PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG often quickly produces strong, unpleasant symptoms such as irritability, craving, inability to focus, sleep disturbance, and increased appetite. Withdrawal symptoms can persist for months or longer.
Amphetamines
or uppers, are stimulant drugs that people use to boost energy, stay awake, or lose weight.
Amphetamines
Often prescribed in the form of diet pills, these drugs increase the release of dopamine, which enhances the user's activity level and pleasurable feelings.
crystal methamphetamine
Perhaps the most insidious illicit drug for contemporary society is......
crystal methamphetamine
Smoked, injected, or swallowed THIS AMPHETAMINE is a synthetic stimulant that causes a powerful feeling of euphoria, particularly the first time it is ingested.
crystal methamphetamine
is made using household products such as battery acid, cold medicine, drain cleaner, and kitty litter, and its effects have been devastating, notably in rural areas of the United States.
crystal methamphetamine
releases enormous amounts of dopamine in the brain, producing intense feelings of pleasure. The drug is highly addictive. The extreme high of THIS AMPHETAMINE leads to a severe "come down" experience that is associated with strong cravings.
Cocaine
is an illegal drug that comes from the coca plant, native to Bolivia and Peru.
Cocaine
is either snorted or injected in the form of crystals or powder. Used this way, THIS AMPHETAMINE floods the bloodstream rapidly, producing a rush of euphoric feelings that lasts for about 15 to 30 minutes.
Cocaine
Because the rush of THIS AMPHETAMINE depletes the brain's supply of the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, an agitated, depressed mood usually follows as the drug's effects decline.
Crack
is a potent form of cocaine, consisting of chips of pure cocaine that are usually smoked.
Cocaine
addictive properties to THIS AMPHETAMINE are so strong that, six months after treatment, more than 50 percent of abusers return to the drug, a statistic that highlights the importance of prevention.
MDMA
called Ecstasy, X, or XTC
MDMA (Ecstasy)
is an illegal synthetic drug with both stimulant and hallucinogenic properties.
MDMA (Ecstasy)
People have called THIS AMPHETAMINE an "empathogen" because under its influence, users tend to feel warm bonds with others.
MDMA (Ecstasy)
produces its effects by releasing serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine.
MDMA (Ecstasy)
The effects of the drug on serotonin are particularly problematic because it depletes the brain of this important neurotransmitter, producing lingering feelings of listlessness that often continue for days after
MDMA (Ecstasy)
impairs memory and cognitive processing.
MDMA (Ecstasy)
Heavy users of THIS AMPHETAMINE show cognitive deficits that persist even two years after they begin to abstain
MDMA (Ecstasy)
Because THIS AMPHETAMINE destroys axons that release serotonin, repeated use might lead to susceptibility to depression
Hallucinogens
are psychoactive drugs that modify a person's perceptual experiences and produce visual images that are not real.
Hallucinogens
are also called psychedelic drugs.
Marijuana
is the dried leaves and flowers of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa, which originated in Central Asia but is now grown in most parts of the world.
hashish
The plant's dried resin is known as....
Marijuana
The active ingredient in THIS DRUG is THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol).
THC ; Marijuana
Unlike other psychoactive drugs, _____does not affect a specific neurotransmitter. Rather, _____disrupts the membranes of neurons and affects the functioning of a variety of neurotransmitters and hormones.
Marijuana
The physical effects of THIS DRUG include increased pulse rate and blood pressure, reddening of the eyes, coughing, and dry mouth.
Marijuana
Psychological effects OF THIS DRUG include a mixture of excitatory, depressive, and mildly hallucinatory characteristics that make it difficult to classify the drug.
Marijuana
can trigger spontaneous unrelated ideas; distorted perceptions of time and place; increased sensitivity to sounds, tastes, smells, and colors; and erratic verbal behavior. The drug can also impair attention and memory.
Marijuana
when used daily in large amounts, THIS DRUG can alter sperm count and change hormonal cycles
Marijuana
is the illegal drug most widely used by high school students.
LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)
is a hallucinogen that even in low doses produces striking perceptual changes
LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)
Objects change their shapes and glow. Colors become kaleidoscopic and astonishing images unfold. WHICH DRUG?
LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)
images are sometimes pleasurable and sometimes grotesque. WHICH DRUG?
LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)
can influence a user's sense of time so that brief glances at objects are experienced as deep, penetrating, and lengthy examinations, and minutes turn into hours or even days. WHICH DRUG?
LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)
A bad trip WITH THIS DRUG can trigger extreme anxiety, paranoia, and suicidal or homicidal impulses.
LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)
THIS DRUG effects on the body can include dizziness, nausea, and tremors and acts primarily on the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain, though it also can affect dopamine
LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)
Emotional and cognitive effects of this drug may include rapid mood swings and impaired attention and memory.
LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)
The use of THIS DRUG peaked in the 1960s and 1970s, and its consumption has been decreasing in the twenty-first century
Psychoactive drugs
are substances that act on the nervous system to alter states of consciousness, modify perceptions, and change moods.
tolerant
When a person has to take more and more of a given drug to achieve the same desired effect, they have become ....
Physical dependence
is the physiological need for a specific drug. Without that drug the person exhibits withdrawal symptoms.
Psychological dependence
is a strong desire to repeat the use of a particular drug for emotional reasons.
addiction
For drug use to be considered an_______ there has to be a physical and/or psychological dependence on the drug.
dopamine;ventral tegmental area (VTA); nucleus accumbens (NAc);
Psychoactive drugs cause an increase in ______ levels in the brain's reward system pathways, especially in the ____ and the______, the centers of the brain implicated in pleasure.
Depressants
low down mental and physical activity.
alcohol
acts as a depressant and slows down the brain's activity. People may act more free and loosen up a bit, because the area of the brain involved in inhibition and judgment slows down.
alcohol
Activities that involve intellectual functioning and motor skills become impaired under the influence of.....
frontal cortex
Researchers believe that the____ holds in memory the pleasure involved in prior alcohol use and therefore contributes to continued drinking.
alcohol
Next to caffeine, _____ is the most widely used drug in the United States.
Alcoholism
involves long-term, repeated, uncontrolled, compulsive, and excessive use of alcoholic beverages that impairs the drinker's health and social relationships.
alcoholics
Fifty to 60 percent of people who become _____ do so because of some genetic disposition.
Alcoholism
The genetic disposition to ____ may be because the brains of these genetically predisposed people may be unable to produce enough dopamine, a neurotransmitter that is implicated in pleasure.
Alcoholism
Recovery from _____ is predictable by someone's (1) having strong negative experiences with drinking, (2) finding a healthy substitute dependency, (3) developing new positive relationships, and (4) joining a support group such as Alcoholics Anonymous.
barbiturates
is a depressant drug that decreases the level of activity of the central nervous system.
barbiturates
were originally prescribed as sleep aids.
barbiturates
With increased usage, _____ can lead to impaired memory and decision making.
Tranquilizers
are depressants that reduce anxiety and induce relaxation.
Tranquilizers
are usually prescribed to calm an anxious, nervous person.
opiates
consisting of opium, depress the central nervous system's activity.
opiates
The way ____ work is that when they leave the brain, the synapses become under stimulated.
opiates
For many hours after taking _____, a person may feel euphoric and pain-free and have an increased desire for food and sex.
Stimulants
work by increasing the level of activity in the central nervous system.
Caffeine
is the world's most widely used drug
caffeinism
term that is used to refer to an overindulgence in caffeine.
caffeinism
This condition brings about mood changes, anxiety, and sleep disruption. It usually occurs in people who drink five or more cups of coffee a day.
nicotine
is the main psychoactive ingredient in all forms of smoking and smokeless tobacco.
nicotine
is highly addictive. It stimulates the brain's reward centers by raising their dopamine levels.
nicotine
The behavioral effects of______include improving attention and alertness, reducing anger and anxiety, and providing pain relief.
Amphetamines
are also known as uppers. People use them to boost energy, stay awake, or lose weight. They are often prescribed as diet pills.
Amphetamines
increase the release of dopamine, which enhances the user's activity level and causes pleasurable effects.
Crystal meth
is probably the most insidious illicit drug. It causes a strong euphoric feeling, especially the first time it is taken.
Cocaine
comes from the coca plant. It is either snorted or injected in the form of crystals or powder.
Cocaine
enters the bloodstream quickly, producing a rush of euphoric feelings that lasts for about 15 to 30 minutes.
Crack
a potent form of cocaine, is believed to be one of the most addictive substances known—more so than heroine, barbiturates, and alcohol.
Hallucinogens
modify a person's perceptual experiences and produce visual images that are not real.
Marijuana
comes from the dried leaves and flowers of the hemp plant.
Marijuana
The active ingredient IN THIS DRUG Tetrahydrocannabinol THC
Marijuana
THE ACTIVE INGREDIENT IN THIS DRUG does not affect A specific neurotransmitter, but it does disrupt the membranes of neurons and affects the functioning of many neurotransmitters and hormones.
Marijuana
The physical effects of _____include an increase in pulse rate and blood pressure, a reddening of the eyes, coughing, and dryness of the mouth.
Marijuana
Psychological effects associated with ____ include a mixture of excitatory, depressive, and mildly hallucinatory characteristics that make it difficult to classify this drug.
Marijuana
an impair attention and memory. When used in large amounts, it can alter sperm count and change hormonal cycles.
Marijuana
is the drug most widely used by high school students.
MDMA (Ecstasy)
Methylendioxymethlamphetamine is.....
MDMA (Ecstasy)
has both stimulant and hallucinogenic properties.
MDMA
street names include Ecstasy, X, XTC, hug, beans, and the love drug.
MDMA (Ecstasy)
has adverse effects on memory and cognitive processing.
D-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)
When using ____, objects can appear to change their shape and to glow. Colors become like a kaleidoscope, and amazing images unfold. Time seems to slow down.
LSD
D-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide is....
D-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)
effects on the body include dizziness, nausea, and tremors.
D-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)
acts primarily on the neurotransmitter serotonin, but it can also affect dopamine.