​For every two potassium ions, how many sodium ions are pumped out of the cell by the sodium-potassium pump?
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Sarah is an 83-year-old woman. Her worried husband brings her to the doctor because she seems lethargic and barely breathing. Her only health problems are glaucoma and gastric reflux disease; she uses eye drops for her glaucoma and while she has a proton pump inhibitor prescribed for her chronic heartburn, she prefers baking soda in water. Her doctor notices she is breathing 6 br/min (normal is 12-20). Her arterial blood gases are as follows (normal): pH 7.67 (7.40); PO2 63 mm Hg (100); PCO2 72 mm Hg (40); HCO3 62 mEq/L (25). What is her acid-base status?
COPD includes which of the following respiratory disorders? Select all that apply.emphysema and chronic bronchitis​What dual functions do the ovaries perform?reproductive and endocrineSomeone with Addison's Disease does not secrete aldosterone. What would you see in blood tests?salty bloodWhat is the composition of the most common type of kidney stonescalcium oxalateoccurs when blood is mismatched during a transfusionagglutinationAlbuterol is the most common medication taken by someone with asthma; when this drug binds to and activates the beta-2 receptors, what will happen?the bronchioles dilate_________ is/are the location of gas exchangealveoliWhat does erythropoietin do?Signals bone marrow to make more red blood cells.What does untreated high blood pressure do?cause heart and kidney failureRight before death, a child with Type I diabetes will be breathing rapidly and deeply. What physiological purpose does this serve?decrease of oxygen and co2Glucose will only be found in the urine if _____________.diabetesWhich of the following lung volumes correctly describes a restful inhalation?tidal volumeIf a fetus is born before its 26th week of gestation, it will have difficulty taking its first breath; why?lack of surfactantEach muscle fiber is innervated by a _________________.motor neuron​What are the chemical messenger for the nervous system?neurotransmitters​What diabetes sub-type is characterized by a lack of insulin secretion?type 1What hormone stimulates gluconeogenesis?glucagon​How is O2(oxygen) transported across the lung membrane?diffusionWhat effect would acidosis have on the amount of potassium in the blood?decreases potassium secretionWhat is the function of the glomerulusfilter the bloodPulmonary edema describes a condition where the uptake of oxygen and unloading of carbon dioxide is reduced as a consequence of a(n) _____________.What is the storage form of glucose?​glycogenWhat term refers to the net diffusion of water down its concentration gradient through a selectively permeable membrane?osmosisThe blood pressure receptors are in ____________.carotid arteries, atria, aortic arch_______ control flow of air into lungsbronchiolesMatch the effect/system with the correct division. Constricting bronchial smooth muscleparasympatheticWhich of the following conditions would result in ketones in the urine?ketosisSomeone with a kidney transplant will have to take _________ for the rest of their life.immunosuppressantsWhy would someone with Type I diabetes have a fruity odor on their breath?ketonesIn animals, the primary form of carbohydrate storage is ________________.fat, triglycerides, adipose tissues,The universal blood donor has which blood type?O-Proteins are made up of _______________.amino acidsThe most common cause of end-stage renal disease, culminating in a possible kidney transplant, is ________.Diabetes, hypertension, and chronic glomerulonephritis are the most common causes of ESRD responsible for 37%, 30%, and 12%, respectively, of incident cases of ESRD.Which of the following describes sarcoplasmic reticulum?The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is a membrane-bound structure found within muscle cells that is similar to the endoplasmic reticulum in other cells. The main function of the SR is to store calcium ions (Ca2+).Virtually all enzymes are made up of _____________.chains of amino acids​Inadequate dietary iodine can lead to:Thus, iodine deficiency can lead to enlargement of the thyroid (goiter - see Goiter brochure), hypothyroidism (see Hypothyroidism brochure) and to intellectual disabilities in infants and children whose mothers were iodine deficient during pregnancy.What is the source of urea?Urea is naturally produced when the liver breaks down protein or amino acids, and ammonia. The kidneys then transfer the urea from the blood to the urine. Extra nitrogen is expelled from the body through urea, and because it is extremely soluble, it is a very efficient process.Loop diuretics such as Lasix ______________________.What two molecules participate in cross-bridge interactions?​myosin and actin