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Acids and Bases
Solutions (acids and bases)
Terms in this set (49)
A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
present in the greatest abundance (does the dissolving)
are dissolved in the substance
when water is the solvent
a substance that dissociates into ions when dissolved in water
When an ionic substance dissolves in water, the solvent pulls the individual ions from the crystal and solvates them.
may dissolve in water, but it does not dissociate into ions when added to water (instead it breaks into individual molecules or atoms)
dissociates completely when dissolved in water (ionic compounds, strong acids/bases)
only dissociates partially when dissolved in water (weak acids and bases).
HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, H2SO4, HClO4, HClO3
LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH, Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2
What dissolved species are present in a solution of
a) KCN -> K+ + CN-
b) CCl4 -> individual CCl4
c) NaClO4 -> Na+ + ClO4-
Which solute will cause the light bulb in the previous slide to glow most brightly,
CH3OH, NaOH, or HC2H3O2? Why?
CH3OH is not an electrolyte
NaOH is a strong electrolyte (this one)
HC2H3O2 is a weak electrolyte
If you have an aqueous solution that contains 1.5 moles of HCl, how many moles of ions are in the solution?
If you were to draw diagrams representing aqueous solutions of (a) NiSO4, (b) Ca(NO3)2, (c) Na3PO4, (d) Al2(SO4)3, how many anions would you show if each diagram contained six cations?
When two solutions containing soluble salts are mixed, sometimes an insoluble salt will be produced. A salt "falls" out of solution
It appears as though the ions in the reactant compounds exchange, or transpose, ions
AgNO3(aq) + KCl(aq) ⎯→ AgCl(s) + KNO3(aq)
the ions are dissacioted
Steps for Metathesis reactions
1) Use the chemical formulas of the reactants to determine which ions are present.
2) Write formulas for the products: cation from one reactant, anion from the other. Use charges to write proper subscripts.
3) Check your solubility rules. If either product is insoluble, a precipitate forms.
4) Balance the equation.
Predict the identity of the precipitate that forms when aqueous solutions of BaCl2 and K2SO4 are mixed.
Will a precipitate form when solutions of Ba(NO3)2 and KOH are mixed?
What compound precipitates when aqueous solutions of Fe2(SO4)3 and LiOH are mixed?
What are the 3 ways to write a metathesis reaction
Complete ionic equation
Net ionic equation
complete (total) ionic equation
all strong electrolytes (strong acids, strong bases, and soluble ionic salts) are dissociated into their ions.
Ex. Ag+(aq) + NO3−(aq) + K+(aq) + Cl−(aq) ⎯→
AgCl(s) + K+(aq) + NO3−(aq)
Net Ionic equation
show only the soluble, strong electrolytes (represented by ions) and omit the spectator ions, which go through the reaction unchanged
ex. Ag+(aq) + NO3−(aq) + K+(aq) + Cl−(aq) ⎯→
AgCl(s) + K+(aq) + NO3−(aq)
Ag+(aq) + Cl−(aq) ⎯→ AgCl(s)
the ions crossed out
Write the net ionic equation for the precipitation reaction that occurs when aqueous solutions of calcium chloride and sodium carbonate are mixed.
Write the net ionic equation for the precipitation reaction that occurs when aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and potassium phosphate are mixed.
Which ions remain in solution, unreacted, after solutions potassium carbonate and magnesium sulfate are mixed?
Separate samples of a solution of an unknown salt are treated with dilute solutions of HBr, H2SO4, and NaOH. A precipitate forms in all three cases. Which of the following cations could be present in the unknown salt solution: K+, Pb2+, Ba2+?
substances that increase the concentration of H+ when dissolved in water
yield one H+ per molecule of acid
(ex. HNO3, HCl)
Yield two H+ per molecule of acid (H2SO4)
Although H2SO4 is a strong electrolyte, (ASK WHYYYYY)
sulfuric acid contain a mixture of H+, HSO4-, and SO42
acidic hydrogen is the one that is attached to the oxygen in the -COOH functional group, aka carboxyl group.
weak and do not ionize completely
Organic acid example: CH3COOH
leaving CH3COO- (acetate ion) and H+
substances that increase the concentration of OH- when dissolved in water
bases Bronsted Lowry
accepts an H+ ion from water molecule and thereby produces an OH- ion
Ammonia is a weak electrolyte because only about 1% of the NH3 forms NH4+ and OH-
acid-base reaction (aka neutralization reaction)
the acid donates a proton (H+) to the base
When the base is a metal hydroxide
water and a salt (an ionic compound) are produced in an acid base reaction
means its an acid
Gas Forming reactions
Substances other than hydroxide containing compounds can react with the hydrogen cations (H+) in acids to form insoluble compounds in the gaseous state.
carbonates/bicarbonates with acids
form CO2 (g), H2O (l), and an ionic salt
Molecular: CaCO3(s) + 2 HCl(aq) ⎯→CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
Net:CaCO3(s) + 2H+(aq) ⎯→ Ca2+ + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
Metal suflide with acid
salt and H2S
Molecular: Na2S(aq) + 2 HCl(aq) → 2 NaCl(aq) + H2S(g)
Net: 2 H+ (aq) + S2- (aq) → H2S(g)
Sulfites/bisulfite with acid
form SO2 (g), H2O (l), and an ionic salt
Molecular Equation: Na2SO3 (aq) + 2 HCl(aq) → 2 NaCl (aq) + SO2(g) + H2O(l)
Net Ionic Equation:
SO32- (aq) + 2 H+ (aq) → SO2 (g) + H2O(l)
Ammonia with bases
form NH3(g), H2O (l), and an ionic salt.
ex. Molecular Equation:
NH4Cl + NaOH → NaCl + NH3 (g) + H2O(l)
Net Ionic Equation:
NH4+ (aq) + OH- (aq) → NH3 (g) + H2O(l)
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
EF MF and Percent Comp Quiz
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