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Mgmt 4400 Exam 1
Terms in this set (72)
The following are the graded requirements for this class: quizzes, journey line, exam 1, exam 2, and exam 3.
The journey line is far more than just sharing your personal story. The journey line is also a rigorous research paper that will require extensive research, thoughtful writing, and vulnerability on your part
Quizzes are to be completed by the Friday of each week we have a quiz. Otherwise, you will receive a zero on that quiz (unless I determine that there are extenuating circumstances).
With the journey line paper, you are expected to us APA style formatting, define course concepts using scholarly definitions, and cite at least five approved sources related to course concepts.
We can numb negative emotions without numbing positive emotions.
Those who choose to be vulnerable have a weak sense of belonging and doubt whether they deserve belonging.
Vulnerability can lead to joy and creativity.
Vulnerability often disrupts our ability to empathize.
According to the Ted Talk, we cannot numb negative emotions without numbing positive emotions.
Vulnerability can lead to discomfort and fear.
According to the Ted Talk, those who choose to be vulnerable have a strong sense of belonging and know that they deserve belonging.
According to the Ted Talk, vulnerability leads to resilience but not learning.
Those who are impulsive are more likely to experience regret and punishment insensitivity, but are less likely to leave the organization?
Outcomes of impulsivity: Rage, Regret, Addiction, Abusive supervision; bullying, Turnover (voluntary and involuntary); Reward sensitivity, Punishment insensitivity
According to the cognitive dissonance research, study participants are more likely to lie about how exciting a study is (and change their attitude toward the study) if you pay them $20.
Expressing anger is typically an effective way to reduce cognitive dissonance.
When dissonance results in sadness, this (sadness) leads to an increase in effort.
One of the negative outcomes of impulsivity is reward sensitivity.
Presenting multiple options at once tends to prime the 'should' self.
Low self-monitors tend to get burned out while high self monitors tend to burn out others.
Those with a scout mindset are driven by motivated reasoning.
Those with a soldier mindset are driven by motivated reasoning (which is the bias toward a decision that conforms to what a person already knows)
All of the following are ways to reduce cognitive dissonance except the following.
Embrace ambivalence is not a way to reduce cognitive dissonance (this actually perpetuates the dissonance). The other way to reduce cognitive dissonance is to: Add cognitions (and try to produce similarity of choices)
When dissonance causes you to challenge previous assumptions, you are likely to experience less empathy.
Challenging previous assumptions due to dissonance you experience empathy with those who experienced empathy in the past and who will experience it in the future. You are also more likely to learn at higher levels (when dissonance challenges previous assumptions).
Emotional contagion is most contagious under the three following conditions: relationship closeness, same status in organization, and task interdependence.
Relationship closeness. Status difference (boss). Task interdependence
Those with emotional agility are able to suppress unwanted emotions.
Avoid suppression of unwanted emotions; Refuse to 'buy into' the emotions (don't get hooked); Approach emotions mindfully and productively; Label emotions. Experience the raw emotion (even if painful)
Two effective ways to demonstrate emotional agility are to (1) act on your values and (2) specify that the emotion is transient.
Feedback in the emotional contagion process is feedback you receive from others.
False (it is self feedback)
Emotional intelligence is an inherently positive trait.
Emotions often disorganize behavior.
Emotions do not disorganize behavior as much as they reorganize or redirect it.
Anger is typically a positive emotional response because it drives action and is readily regulated.
Although anger drives action, it is often difficult to regulate or control.
Emotions are only spread voluntarily through facial expressions, tone, posture.
Emotions are spread even involuntarily through facial expressions, tone, posture.
Mimicry is difficult to fake and complex.
Our own gestures tend to drive our own emotions through emotional scripts.
The end of history illusion suggests that we tend to think that who we are is increasingly changing and evolving.
Self-verification refers to our desire to have others see us as we see ourselves.
Self-enhancement suggests that we may embrace even negative views of self.
Self-verification can be bad for individuals.
(if their need for self-verification might cause them to gravitate toward an abusive partner, feel entitled, and/or embrace a negative view of self).
The crystallization of discontent leads to the reshuffling of values to escape a previous way of being (avoiding previous behaviors because of the pain associated with such behaviors).
The crystallization of desire triggers the 'want' self and impulsivity.
Crystallization of desire relates to reshuffling of values and behaviors to optimize your path forward—you are motivated to seek sources of joy.
Self-verification helps meet all of the following needs: consistency, predictability being known, and feeling validated.
Although the liking persuasive tactic often leads to agreement, it does not necessarily lead to more accurate decisions.
The consistency persuasive tactic is often linked to commitment (e.g., our commitment to a previous action).
According to the authority persuasive tactic, we are more likely to be resistant to those in authority.
We are more likely to comply with authority figures and/or follow the guidance from those known to have legitimate authority (e.g., comply with those who display academic degrees in their office).
Rational actor theory assumes individuals are other-interested.
Rational actor theory assumes it is best to assume the worst in other actors.
Individuals tend to be responsive to the prime to behave either cooperatively or self-interestedly.
Those with high rational self-interest tend to make meticulous calculations, try to anticipate all consequences, and seek utility maximization for personal gain.
Those with high other-orientation tend to have high concern for others, feel compassion and empathy for others, and try to calculate all consequences when making decisions.
(rely on heuristic processing instead of calculations)
Job design is highly important to those who are high in rational self-interest.
Takers tend to be the least productive individuals.
We are more likely to cooperate under all of the following conditions except:
Self-preservation or preservation of those similar to us
Assist those whose skills are compatible with our skills
Genetics or disposition (e.g., other-orientation)
Fulfill duty and/or adhere to social norms
We are more likely to cooperate under all of these conditions
Four causes of abusive supervision are low self-esteem, stress, fear, and confusion.
Abusive supervision is when subordinates perceive that their supervisor engages in one-time outbursts that are harsh and hostile.
[must be sustained to be defined as abusive supervision]
Subordinates can increase the likelihood of abusive supervision from their supervisor by being perceived as high or low on the dominating scale.
Self-determination can reduce the likelihood of abusive supervision.
Abusive supervision is best understood at the group level (e.g., culture).
Given the emerging research and interventions in positive psychology (reducing pain and increasing well-being), we would expect to see immediate reported decreases in workplace deviance.
[it is hard to tell: stressors are increasing too, positive psychology might also be increasing expectations, leading to increased reporting as well as unmet expectations]
We can reduce workplace deviance by increasing the amount of shame employees experience.
[shame increases deviance and intensifies pain; it also reduces sense of real power to change outcomes in healthy ways; fixed pain that is perceived to only be remedied by lashing out at the target]
An effective way to deal with a**holes is to assess behavior, but not impact and intentions.
[assess behavior and impact, but not intentions].
Feelings of anger and rage might be impactful at the time, but such feelings are typically not strongly held in our memory for very long.
[anger and rage can become emblazoned on our memory and become nurtured over time through rumination]
When abusive supervisors are perceived as violating norms of interpersonal injustice, this has a negative effect but the effect is only minor.
[the effect of interpersonal injustice is pronounced and powerful]
Compare and contrast scout mindset vs soldier mindset.
Soldier: actions stem from deeply ingrained reflexes. You protect/defend, objective to defeat or you will die. This mindset is very reactive and does not consider much outside of itself. Soldier mindset is rooted in emotions like defensiveness or tribalism.
Scout: their job is to understand, identify potential obstacles, but above all a scout wants to know what is really there as accurately as possible. It's the drive not to make one idea win or another lose, but just to see what's really there as honestly and accurately as you can, even if it's not pretty or convenient or pleasant.
Scouts are curious. They're more likely to say they feel pleasure when they learn new information or an itch to solve a puzzle. They're more likely to feel intrigued when they encounter something that contradicts their expectations. Scouts also have different values. scouts are grounded, which means their self-worth as a person isn't tied to how right or wrong they are about any particular topic
You will need to define the multiple selves problem, and identify several differences between the two.
The multiple selves problem involves 2 separate and distinct selves-the want self and the should self.
The want self dominates at points of decision, overrides the doer. Is a short term thinker. The want self has transient concerns, is emotional, and impulsive.
The should self is often in command, knows more, is a planner, and is more disciplined. It is a long term thinker, rational concerns, and thoughtful.
Why is impulsivity is problematic? 4 or 5 reasons.
They are more likely to have rage, regret, or addictions. They are more abusive supervisors. More prone to bully. They have reward sensitivity and punishment sensitivity.
What does it mean to be a giver, taker, and matcher?
Givers are people who approach most interactions by asking, "What can I do for you?"
Takers: Self-serving in their interactions. It's all about what can you do for me.
Matchers: People in the middle of givers and takers. There is an even balance between the two, like quid pro quo.
Of the 3 which performs the best and the worst? Why?
Givers are both.
The reason they are the worst is because they can become so busy doing other people's jobs, that they literally run out of time and energy to get their own work completed.
The reason they are the best is because and the more often people help and share their knowledge, and provide mentoring, the better organizations do on every metric we can measure.
What are some ways to give productively? (what causes people to give productively vs not?)
If you give productively, you are performing the best.
Giving productively is preserving self interest, giving to other givers and matchers, not takers. Give in ways that reinforce social ties. Give in chunks so that it is more gratifying. Establish boundaries. Give when the impact is big-when return on investment is high.
You perform the worst when you fail to do the things that allow you to give productively. People don't give productively when they are burned out.
Emotional contagion. Why do we want positive emotional contagion?
Emotional Contagion is the tendency to automatically mimic and synchronize expressions, vocalizations, postures, and movements with those of another person's and, consequently, to converge emotionally. "We catch other's emotions."
Increases positive affect or mood. It makes us more cooperative and conflict less likely. It makes us more likely to be a better citizen. It makes us perform better.
Emotional contagion increases with relationship closeness, status, and task interdependence.
Identify 4 characteristics of emotional agility
If you have emotional agility, you are avoiding suppression of unwanted emotion. Notice when you are hooked.
Refusal to buy into the emotion. You recognize that emotion is transient-like a passing cloud.
Labeling the emotions precisely.
Experience the raw emotion and act on values.
Describe the 4 dimensions of emotional intelligence
What is the importance of emotional intelligence?
It allows you to have the ability to monitor one's own emotions and those of others, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one's thinking and actions
Differentiate between crystallization of discontent and crystallization of desire. What role do they have in reducing suffering and attaining joy? Individually and collectively?
Crystallization of discontent is the kinds of decisions we make to reshuffle values to escape a previous way of being (avoiding because the costs are too high). It is very powerful in moving us out of suffering.
Crystallization of desire is the kinds of decisions we make to reshuffle values to find a better way of being (approaching because of the joy of attaining). It is very powerful in striving for what brings us happiness or joy.
Together they are especially powerful because they canvas the emotional spectrum of suffering and true joy. The one will keep us from sinking to far, the other will allow us to keep moving forward, finding new levels of satisfaction, happiness, and joy.
What is the end of history illusion? How does it impact our progress and growth?
The end of history illusion is that at any point along our personal journey, we tend to believe that who we are at that moment is the final destination of our becoming.
This is a catastrophic belief and it impacts our progress and growth because we're locked in a mindset that doesn't belief we can change, that we can't be transient or temporary. This is false, false, false.
"The one constant in our lives is change."
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