What is the difference between neural vs. hormonal control -
The nervous system detects body changes and sends nerve impulses to counteract the stress. The endocrine system regulates homeostasis by secreting hormones.
What is the only real difference between neural vs. hormonal control
the manner by which it is delivered.
What is homeostasis?
Maintaining constant internal environment
Positive vs. negative feedback
If you were hot, what would be the negative feedback to control body temperature?
Dilation of vessels, sweating
In order to maintain homeostasis you need to have what?
Complete reflex arm, receptors, afferent pathways, integration center
BE ABLE TO PUT THIS IN APPROPRIATE SEQUENCE
Can the afferent path and efferent path be both hormonal and neural?
Yes, it can be both.
Which of either afferent path or efferent path carries information toward integration center?
GIVE EXAMPLES of glucagon or insulin -
If blood sugar is too low, therefore...
glucagon is released
Can hormones be produced by nerve cells?
Can hormones be secreted by endocrine?
Can hormones be used as regulators for organ function?
The vagus nerve uses what type of control?
Uses NEURO control, it releases the neurotransmitter right on the target
Adrenal medulla controls by releases its hormone directly into...
Can we evolve a bigger lung?
NO but can still acclimate by increasing cell count or hematocrit (carry MORE!) (rose secondarily-making more blood cells in response to low oxygen)
Homeostasis involves biorhythms like?
SLEEP, MENSTRUAL CYCLE
Circadian rhythm regulates SLEEP and responds to the changes of what?
Releasing melatonin for the sleep cycle can cause what?
Food, migration pattern and sleep cycle
Do all cells live forever?
Do some cells have short life span?
Which cells have a short life span?
Epithelial cells, which die by autolysis (apoptosis)
Do all cells exhibit mitosis?
Does a heart cell divide with heart attack?
Cells that do not replace themselves are called what?
What determines if you are able to respond to signals?
Having the appropriate specific RECEPTORS, and the more receptors the more sensitive
How do you add more receptors to membrane?
How do you remove receptors to membrane?
Where are proteins produced?
Where are proteins packaged?
Where are proteins repackaged?
Where are sterols and lipids made?
In the cytoplasm
Where are sterols and lipids packaged?
What does ER store?
If a molecule is polar, it has charged ends, therefore must be ionized
NO (Because they are still sharing electrons, they are COVALENT) You cannot be ionized if you're sharing
If you can join organic molecules by removal of water (dehydration), how do you split molecules?
Hydrolysis, the addition of water (will breaks covalent bonds)
Water and oil don't mix, what are we saying?
polar does NOT dissolve in non-polar and vice-versa
Proteins in cell membrane and phospholipids have portions that are hydrophilic and hydrophobic, therefore they are?
pH measures concentration of hydroxyl ions?
NO, it measures the concentration of hydrogen ions
Do our membranes or cells have the mechanisms to move hydroxyls?
NO, can only move hydrogen
What are organic molecules?
Consist of chains of carbon dioxide
Carbohydrates always have equal numbers of?
Carbon and oxygen (standard formulas for alkanes, alkynes, alkines)
A glucose molecule is a monosaccharide, and so are what other sugars?
Sucrose is what type of sugar?
disaccharide, made of glucose and fructose
What are the pentose sugars that are monosacharieds that make up nucleic acid?
ribose and deoxyribose
What 2 monosaccharaides make up lactose?
galactose and glucose
What 2 monosaccharaides make up maltose?
Glucose and glucose
Animals are able to store glucose in polymers of glucose known as?
the polymer (carbohydrate) named glycogen (animal starch)
Plants are able to store chains of alpha glucose in what form?
STARCH, or analose
Chains of beta glucose form what?
Cellulose (can't be digested by humans)
Can humans digest chains of alpha glucose?
What 3 things make nucleic acid?
Phosphate, sugar, nitrogenous base
Can we identify the nucleic acid by its phosphate?
Can we identify the nucleic acid by its sugar?
Partially, it can tell us whether it's DNA or RNA
How do we identify the nucleic acid?
By nitrogenous bases
Different nitrogenous base is different in RNA and not in DNA?
The major function for plasma membrane is to?
Selectively permeate or regulate what enters and leaves
Why is the plasma membrane referred to fluid mosaic
the fluid is the phospholipid sea layer and the mosaic are the integral proteins serving as channel
What binds cells together and seals them so that molecules can't slip between cells but must pass through?
Tight junctions, because they are seals
Why is granular endoplasmic reticulum granular?
Because it has ribosomes
Why is agranular endoplasmic reticulum agranular?
Agranular ER is a site to store what?
Stores calcium, and can package lipids
What do you call specialized vacuole that contain powerful hydrolytic enzymes that help break down macromolecules
What do you call the vesicles that have powerful peroxidases, which are meant to neutralize toxins?
Where is the modification and redistribution center
Cytoskeleton is formed by micro tubes and filaments
YES (IT IS NOT SO FOR HUMAN BONES)
If one cell is able to produce more product than another cell (i.e. more lipid, protein) that must mean that one cell has
when cells different productivity, they have different factory or working plants. They also may have different energy sources (if it makes more protein it has more ribosomes, if it makes more lipids, cell has more ER)
If I am given the codon, can we give anticodon?
If I am giving the DNA triplet, can I give back codon?
What do you call the copying of the DNA message onto the RNA?
TRANSCRIpTION happens in nucleus
The initial DNA message transcribed onto the messenger RNA is larger or smaller than the final?
Larger because it includes nonsense known as introns, which we have to remove
What is transfer RNA transferring?
Amino acids and putting them in the right spots
Where does translation happen?
In the ribosomes (translates into a sequence of amino acids)
Where does transcription happen?
In the nucleus
When transcribed, the final messenger RNA is considerably what?
shorter than the original.
Segments of DNA with a particular trait are called?
How do genes become cancerous?
They are activated by an environmental trigger
Gene that is altered can cause cancer is called a what?
What factors accelerate diffusion?
In diffusion, how are particles moving?
In RANDOM MOVEMENT
To increase net flux of a penetrating solute, what can I do to the concentration of the solute?
Increase concentration, adding heat, but concentration is more favorable because particles collide most often.
Which kind of molecule diffuses more rapidly to the cell membrane?
NONPOLAR because most of membrane is phospholipid therefore nonpolar dissolves non polar because the membrane is lipid.
What factors increase diffusion rate?
More temp, more concentration, more agitation, more surface area, increase solubility
What slows diffusion rate?
Greater distance, greater molecular weight
Permeability of ions across membrane can be affected by the number of channels
Permeability of ions across membrane can be affected by the charge on ion
Permeability of ions across membrane can be affected by the voltage on the membrane
The voltage of membranes is the same in all cells?
NO, varies between cells
Which ions are more abundant in intra and extra- and intra-cellular fluid?
Which is the most abundant anion in the extracellular fluid
When transport is mediated it is mediated by carrier proteins, is that always active transport?
Can it be characterized by number of carriers available?
Facilitated diffusion requires metabolic ENERGY from the cell
NO, because it is diffusion.
Secondary active transport requires cellular metabolic energy
NO, only primary does
When mediating the transport of something across the membrane, that membrane will be influenced or mediated by the presence of an appropriate binding site
YES, you have to have the right receptor to bind to.
In the sodium-potassium pump, we pump out how many sodiums for potassiums?
3 sodiums out for every 2 potassiums in
Osmosis refers to diffusion of what?
solvent, usually water
In the case of cells and tube (experiment example in lab), diffusion of water across a membrane would be finely balanced by opposing force. What is going to stop the colomose from rising
the weight of the pressure from the other side (opposing pressure)
Which of these solutions and hypo- or hyper- tonic?
Sodium chloride at 150 milliosmoles (MO), Calcium chloride at 100 MO, or Sodium fluoride at 200 MO - Sodium fluoride at 200 MO is HYPERTONIC.
What makes the solution most hypertonic?
the # of osmatically active particles
Exocytosis vs. endocytosis
Difference between endocrine vs exocrine
endocrine secretes hormones via ducts, and exocrine secretes hormones via bloodstream.
The diffusion of glucose into/out of cell is usually done by?
Facilitated diffusion, usually facilitated by a simport.
Sodium is independent and can go through what when going in and out of the cell?
uniports or simporters
A protein with at least two binding sites is what?
If I bind to an allosteric binding site, and it prevents you from binding, what kind of INHIBITION is that?
When you are competing for same binding site, it is called?
Sum of all catabolic and anabolic processes could be described as what?
Will raising temperature increase likelihood of a chemical reaction?
Will increasing concentration increase likelihood of a chemical reaction?
Will Use of a catalyst increase likelihood of a chemical reaction?
Catalysts increase chemical reaction by doing what?
Lowering activation energy, so the reactions go FASTER
When I give a chemical reaction A+B=C, it is called...
If an arrow in an equation goes in both directions, the equation is what?
IT IS Reversible
What favors forward reaction?
Increasing reactant, decreasing product
How can we increase a forward reaction, and exothermic reaction or an endothermic reaction?
Which reactions need energy to be added to the system to make it move forward?
To increase forward reaction we need to add more what?
Which is organic, catalysts or enzymes?
Enzymes are catalysts, but catalysts are not enzymes
Are enzymes organic?
YES, and are NOT substrates or part of the reaction
Are co-enzymes organic?
YES, and CAN be substrates and cofactors
Cofactors are usually vitamins?
NO, they are metals, etc.
Are co-enzymes usually vitamins?
Can a cofactor alter the combination of an enzyme?
Can a cofactor alter binding site of coenzyme?
YES, and thereby enhance it
If you have a series of chemical reactions, which one would be the rate-limiting step?
Slowest one is the rate of limiting step
The body's favorite energy currency is
creating phosphate (ATP)
Most ATP is generated by
Oxidated phosphorylation which occurs in MITOCHONDRIA
Glycolysis generates a net profit of how many ATP?
2, therefore it is not preferred energy currency of cells.
Glycolysis does not require oxygen nor
is affected by oxygen
What is the end product of glycolysis?
Pyruvate and it might also be lactate
Where are ribosomal subunits formed and stored?
If we metabolize glucose without oxygen, it is called
Anaerobic glycolysis, its net profit is limited
In oxidized phosphorylation, what is being phosphorylated?
We are taking ADP and converting it to ATP
Does oxidized phosphorylation require coenzymes
YES because they carry the electrons
Do the coenzymes need to be unoccupied for phosphorylation?
Yes, because they need to be unoccupied to carry electrons
Fatty acid synthesis takes place in cytosol
YES, this is where lipid synthesis takes place
When you produce a fatty acid, chain must be assembled with how many carbons?
An EVEN number of carbons
It costs more energy to produce fatty acid than it gets when it breaks it down, but what makes it energy efficient?
But it DOES store most energy, which is broken down when it's needed
What is a good way to transport lots of energy in a light way
Greatest amount of energy is found in
Digestion of fat produces
Digestion of proteins produces
Body stores ammonia as what to make it less offensive
What is the name of cell division?
What is mitosis
a division of the DNA
When does cytokinesis happen?
Cytokinesis happens at the end with the division of DNA
In mitosis, how many daughter cells do you need?
2 daughter cells, identical to each other and parent (cellular replacement, most abundant form of reproduction)
Do all cells divide frequently?
No, (eg. Brain cells, heart cells) some cells go through a state called amitosis, they don't divide
When a cell is dividing, what does its interface consist of?
G1, S and G2
What are the G1 and G2 phases?
Preparatory phases in mitosis, building up cellular proteins, cell membrane, so each daughter cell will have right amount of materials to survive
What is happening during S-phase?
Synthesis, when it synthesizes DNA
During what phase does the cell make the most chromosomes or chromatin?
When the cell divides and separates its new material
When it stops dividing - goes into phase named
G-0, or G-Not phase, for cells that no longer divide like brain cells or muscle cells.
When a muscle gets too big, what happens?
Surface area goes up by the square and the volume goes up by the cube... can't be very strong for long duration
Why can't bulky muscles be strong for a long amount of time?
Not enough surface area to allow nutrients to get in or out, can only be a fast twitch muscle, only powerful for a spurt
Net profit for most cells when they do aerobic respiration and ATP
36 (few get 38)
If you take a saturated fat and put a double bond, what happens?
You unsaturated it
What do we call it when a chain has more than 1 double bond
What do we call it when a chain has 1 double bond
Proteins can be described by 4 levels of complexity, what are they?
PRIMARY, SECONDARY, TERTIARY AND QUATERNARY
Which one has more than one chain intertwined?
Which one can describe the chain as a Beta or Alpha helix
Proteins give support?
Do they control genetic blueprint?
Nucleotides consist of
SUGAR PHOSPHATE AND NITROGENOUS BASE
What makes a fatty acid an acid?
Can hormones affect path distribution?
Yes, like cortisol
Can hormones affect the immune response?
Can hormones affect libido?
Can hormones give you secondary sexual characteristics?