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What is the difference between neural vs. hormonal control -
The nervous system detects body changes and sends nerve impulses to counteract the stress. The endocrine system regulates homeostasis by secreting hormones.
What is the only real difference between neural vs. hormonal control
the manner by which it is delivered.
If you were hot, what would be the negative feedback to control body temperature?
Dilation of vessels, sweating
In order to maintain homeostasis you need to have what?
Complete reflex arm, receptors, afferent pathways, integration center
Which of either afferent path or efferent path carries information toward integration center?
The vagus nerve uses what type of control?
Uses NEURO control, it releases the neurotransmitter right on the target
Can we evolve a bigger lung?
NO but can still acclimate by increasing cell count or hematocrit (carry MORE!) (rose secondarily-making more blood cells in response to low oxygen)
What determines if you are able to respond to signals?
Having the appropriate specific RECEPTORS, and the more receptors the more sensitive
If a molecule is polar, it has charged ends, therefore must be ionized
NO (Because they are still sharing electrons, they are COVALENT) You cannot be ionized if you're sharing
If you can join organic molecules by removal of water (dehydration), how do you split molecules?
Hydrolysis, the addition of water (will breaks covalent bonds)
Proteins in cell membrane and phospholipids have portions that are hydrophilic and hydrophobic, therefore they are?
Carbohydrates always have equal numbers of?
Carbon and oxygen (standard formulas for alkanes, alkynes, alkines)
What are the pentose sugars that are monosacharieds that make up nucleic acid?
ribose and deoxyribose
Animals are able to store glucose in polymers of glucose known as?
the polymer (carbohydrate) named glycogen (animal starch)
The major function for plasma membrane is to?
Selectively permeate or regulate what enters and leaves
Why is the plasma membrane referred to fluid mosaic
the fluid is the phospholipid sea layer and the mosaic are the integral proteins serving as channel
What binds cells together and seals them so that molecules can't slip between cells but must pass through?
Tight junctions, because they are seals
What do you call specialized vacuole that contain powerful hydrolytic enzymes that help break down macromolecules
What do you call the vesicles that have powerful peroxidases, which are meant to neutralize toxins?
If one cell is able to produce more product than another cell (i.e. more lipid, protein) that must mean that one cell has
when cells different productivity, they have different factory or working plants. They also may have different energy sources (if it makes more protein it has more ribosomes, if it makes more lipids, cell has more ER)
The initial DNA message transcribed onto the messenger RNA is larger or smaller than the final?
Larger because it includes nonsense known as introns, which we have to remove
To increase net flux of a penetrating solute, what can I do to the concentration of the solute?
Increase concentration, adding heat, but concentration is more favorable because particles collide most often.
Which kind of molecule diffuses more rapidly to the cell membrane?
NONPOLAR because most of membrane is phospholipid therefore nonpolar dissolves non polar because the membrane is lipid.
What factors increase diffusion rate?
More temp, more concentration, more agitation, more surface area, increase solubility
When mediating the transport of something across the membrane, that membrane will be influenced or mediated by the presence of an appropriate binding site
YES, you have to have the right receptor to bind to.
In the sodium-potassium pump, we pump out how many sodiums for potassiums?
3 sodiums out for every 2 potassiums in
In the case of cells and tube (experiment example in lab), diffusion of water across a membrane would be finely balanced by opposing force. What is going to stop the colomose from rising
the weight of the pressure from the other side (opposing pressure)
Which of these solutions and hypo- or hyper- tonic?
Sodium chloride at 150 milliosmoles (MO), Calcium chloride at 100 MO, or Sodium fluoride at 200 MO - Sodium fluoride at 200 MO is HYPERTONIC.
Difference between endocrine vs exocrine
endocrine secretes hormones via ducts, and exocrine secretes hormones via bloodstream.
The diffusion of glucose into/out of cell is usually done by?
Facilitated diffusion, usually facilitated by a simport.
Sodium is independent and can go through what when going in and out of the cell?
uniports or simporters
If I bind to an allosteric binding site, and it prevents you from binding, what kind of INHIBITION is that?
Catalysts increase chemical reaction by doing what?
Lowering activation energy, so the reactions go FASTER
If you have a series of chemical reactions, which one would be the rate-limiting step?
Slowest one is the rate of limiting step
Glycolysis generates a net profit of how many ATP?
2, therefore it is not preferred energy currency of cells.
If we metabolize glucose without oxygen, it is called
Anaerobic glycolysis, its net profit is limited
In oxidized phosphorylation, what is being phosphorylated?
We are taking ADP and converting it to ATP
Do the coenzymes need to be unoccupied for phosphorylation?
Yes, because they need to be unoccupied to carry electrons
When you produce a fatty acid, chain must be assembled with how many carbons?
An EVEN number of carbons
It costs more energy to produce fatty acid than it gets when it breaks it down, but what makes it energy efficient?
But it DOES store most energy, which is broken down when it's needed
In mitosis, how many daughter cells do you need?
2 daughter cells, identical to each other and parent (cellular replacement, most abundant form of reproduction)
Do all cells divide frequently?
No, (eg. Brain cells, heart cells) some cells go through a state called amitosis, they don't divide
What are the G1 and G2 phases?
Preparatory phases in mitosis, building up cellular proteins, cell membrane, so each daughter cell will have right amount of materials to survive
When it stops dividing - goes into phase named
G-0, or G-Not phase, for cells that no longer divide like brain cells or muscle cells.
When a muscle gets too big, what happens?
Surface area goes up by the square and the volume goes up by the cube... can't be very strong for long duration
Why can't bulky muscles be strong for a long amount of time?
Not enough surface area to allow nutrients to get in or out, can only be a fast twitch muscle, only powerful for a spurt
Proteins can be described by 4 levels of complexity, what are they?
PRIMARY, SECONDARY, TERTIARY AND QUATERNARY
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