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Chemistry 302 Final Exam
Terms in this set (37)
Phase changes R, T, W, X, Y, and Z are the six normal phase changes we have studied. Use the clues below to determine which phase change is vaporization.
I. Phase changes Y and W are equal in magnitude and have the lowest magnitude of phase changes.
II. Phase change X is greater in magnitude than phase change T and both are endothermic.
III. Phase change R is greater in magnitude than phase change Z and both are exothermic.
Phase Change T
Check all that apply for a system that is in chemical equilibrium:
ΔG = 0
Rate of the forward reaction = rate of the reverse reaction
Select all the statements that are true when K > 1:
Products are favored
Consider this reaction:
X (aq) + Y (aq) ⇌ W (aq) + R (aq)
If you mix just X and Y in a container, which is true?
ΔG < 0 and insufficient data to determine ΔG°
Phase changes R, T, W, X, Y, and Z are the six normal phase changes we have studied. Use the clues below to determine which phase change is sublimation.
I. Phase change Y is exothermic
II. Phase changes Y and W are equal in magnitude and have the lowest magnitude of the phase changes.
III. Phase change X is greater in magnitude than phase change T and both are endothermic.
IV. Phase change R is greater in magnitude than phase change Z and both are exothermic.
Phase Change X
Which of the following statements is ALWAYS true about deposition?
ΔH < 0
Which of the following would change the vapor pressure of a sample of water in a closed container?
1. decreasing the size of the container
2. lower the container temperature
3. removing water from the container
__________ are made when __________ are dissolved in __________.
solutions, solutes, solvents
Which of the following would increase the solubility of a gas in water?
1. increase the temperature of the water
2. decrease the temperature of the water
3. increase the pressure of the gas above the water
2 and 3
Red blood cells contain Na+ ions, K+ ions, and water. If we place some red blood cells into a beaker full of pure water, what will happen to them?
they will swell and burst
When the chemical reaction
A + B ⇌ C + D
is at equilibrium, which of the following is true?
neither the forward nor the reverse reactions have stopped
Explain why equilibrium constants are dimensionless.
Every concentration or pressure that enters into Kc or Kp is really divided by the corresponding concentration or pressure of the substance in its standard state.
According to the Bronsted-Lowry concept of acids and bases, which of the following statements about a base is NOT true?
A base must contain a hydroxide group.
A strong acid (or base) is one which...
dissociates completely in aqueous solution.
A water solution of sodium acetate is basic because...
the acetate ion acts as a Bronsted-Lowry base in a reaction with water.
When we titrate a weak base with a strong acid, the pH at the equivalence point will be...
pH < 7
You want to create a buffer solution with pH = 8.4 using hypobromous acid. Will this solution have more moles of the protonated or deprotonated form of the molecule?
More moles of the protonated form
For a reaction that is zero-order overall...
the rate does not change during the reaction.
Consider the reaction below:
A + B ⟶ C
If it is 1st order in A and 0th order in B, a plot of ln[A] vs time will have a slope that is...
The reaction below:
A ⟶ products
is observed to obey first-order kinetics. Which of the following plots should give a straight line?
ln[A] vs t
A reaction is found to be first order with respect to one of the reactant species, A. When might a plot of ln[A] vs time NOT yield a straight line?
- if the reaction comes to equilibrium
- when the rate also depends on the concentration of another reactant as well
- if the reaction has any significant backward rate
-> Correct! All of the other answers could be correct.
Consider the following elementary reactions:
a) NO + O3 ⟶⟶ NO2 + O2
b) CS2 ⟶⟶ CS + S
c) O + O2 + N2 ⟶⟶ O3 + N2
Identify the molecularity of each reaction respectively.
bimolecular, unimolecular, termolecular
speeds up the reaction but does not change K.
All else being equal, a reaction with a higher activation energy compared to one with a lower activation energy will...
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
If the exponents in the rate-law do not match the coefficients in the balanced equation, then we know that the reaction does not take place in one step.
"Reaction mechanisms usually involve only unimolecular or bimolecular steps."
Is this statement true or false?
True, because collisions of higher molecularity would occur too infrequently to account for an observed rate.
Which of the following is/are ALWAYS true concerning collision and transition state theory?
I) Transition states are short-lived.
II) A balanced reaction shows which species must collide for the reaction to occur.
III) Intermediates are short-lived.
Which of the following statements does NOT correctly explain why the respective factor affects the speed of a reaction?
Catalysts lower the activation energy of the fast step of the reaction.
Identify ALL of the FALSE statements below.
- Catalysts never appear on the product side of an elementary chemical equation.
- Catalysts can turn an endothermic reaction into an exothermic one.
- Catalysts and concentration are the only factors that change the activation energy of a reaction mechanism.
The reaction A + B → C + D was found to be second order with respect to A and first order with respect to B. If the concentration of A is cut in half and the concentration of B is doubled, what will the overall effect be on the rate of the reaction?
The initial reaction rate will be cut in half.
Molar solubility is...
the number of moles of a compound that dissolve to give one liter of saturated solution.
In a galvanic cell...
oxidation and reduction take place at the same time, but at different electrodes
In a working electrochemical cell (a galvanic cell or a battery), the cations in the salt bridge move toward the cathode.
In an electrolytic cell, the negative terminal is the (cathode/anode) and is the site of the (oxidation/reduction) half-reaction.
If the table of standard reduction potentials is ordered with the strongest reducing agents at the top, how are the reduction potentials ordered (from top to bottom)?
from most negative to most positive
A labmate asks you what the difference is between an electrolytic cell and a galvanic cell. Select ALL of the correct answers from the list below:
- The anode in an electrolytic cell is (+) and the anode in a galvanic cell is (-).
- In an electrolytic cell, a nonspontaneous reaction is being forced to occur. In a galvanic cell, the reaction is spontaneous.
- An electrolytic cell has a negative Ecell and a galvanic cell has a positive Ecell.
Select ALL that are true statements.
- Electron transfer happens at the surface of the electrodes, not in the solution itself.
- Salt bridge anions are spectators and do not take part in the chemical reaction.
- Electrons always flow from the anode to the cathode.
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