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Reproductive System-Check Your Understanding
Terms in this set (23)
Where are the interstitial cells located? What are their function?
interstitial cells are clustered in the loose connective tissue between the seminiferous tubules. These cells secret testosterone
Distinguish the tunica albuginea from the tunica vaginalis
The tunica albuginea is the fibrous capsule surrounding the testes. The tunica vaginalis is superficial to the tunica albuginea. It is a two layered serous sac (a remnant of the peritoneum) that partially surrounds the testis
What is meant by the phrase "sperm mature in the epididymis"?
in the epididymis, sperm gain the ability to swim and ability to fertilize the egg
Where is the ejaculatory duct located?
the ejaculatory duct is located at the the junction of the ampulla of the ductus deferens and the duct of the seminal gland. This duct passes through the prostate and empties into the prostatic urethra
Which pair of accessory glands produces the majority of semen?
approximately 60% of the volume of semen is produced by the seminal glands
Which erectile tissue does the urethra pass through? What is this portion of the urethra called?
the urethra passes through the corpus spongiosum and thus this portion of the urethra is called the spongy urethra
How many spermatids are formed from each primary spermatocyte?
each primary spermatocyte produces four spermatids
What roles do sustenocytes play in sperm formation?
sustenocytes help form sperm by nourishing the spermatogenic cells and moving these cells toward the tubule lumen. Secretions from sustenocytes influence testosterone and FSH levels and function either to stimulate or to inhibit sperm formation. Tight junctions between adjacent sustenocytes form the blood testis barrier, which protects the sperm from attack by the immune system
What are the components of the head of the sperm? Of the midpiece? Of the tail?
the head of the sperm contains the contains the nucleus and the acrosome; the midpiece contains the mitochondria; and the tail is a flagellum.
What type of tissue lines the uterine tubes? How does this aid in "capturing" the ovulated oocyte?
the uterine tubes are lined with ciliated and unciliated columnar epithelium. The beating of the cilia produces movement of the peritoneal fluid to draw the oocyte into the uterine tube
Name the peritoneal supports of the female reproductive structures. To which organ does each attach?
peritoneal folds that support the female reproductive structures are the broad ligament composed of the mesometrium to the uterus, the mesosalpinx tom the uterine tubes., and the mesovarium and suspensory ligament to the ovary
Describe the location of each of the following structures:
a.) Fundus of the uterus
b.) Infundibulum of the uterine tube
a.) the fundus of the uterus is the region superior to the entrance of the uterine tubes
b.) the infundibulum is the later funnel shaped opening of the uterine tube
c.) the endometrium is the innermost layer of the uterine wall
What are the male homologues of the following female genital structures?
a.) Labia majora
c.) Bulb of Vestibule
a.) Male scrotum
b.) corpora cavernosa of the penis
c.) corpora spongiosum
Which hormone stimulates follicle development in the ovary?
follicle-stimulating hormone (from the anterior pituitary) stimulates follicle development in the ovary
During which period of a female's life do stem cells, oogonia, produce oocytes? How does this differ from spermatocyte production in males?
oogonia differentiate into oocytes during the fetal period in females. In males, spermatogonia differentiate into spermatocytes throughout a male adult's life
What is the corpus luteum. and what role does it play in the ovarian and uterine cycles?
the corpus luteum is the remnant of of the ovarian follicle after ovulation. The corpus luteum secretes progesterone, which stimulates the secretory phase of the uterine cycle
When does the glandular portion of the breast develop in females?
the glandular portion of the breast develops midway through pregnancy
What prevents more than one sperm from fertilizing an ovum?
once a sperm fuses to the plasma membrane of the oocyte, the cortical reaction prevents additional sperm from binding to and entering the egg
What part of the placenta is formed from maternal tissue? What part is formed from fetal tissue?
the decidua basalis is from the maternal endometrium.; the chorionic villi are from the embryonic trophoblast
In addition to nourishing the developing fetus, the placenta also functions as an endocrine organ. What hormones does the placenta produce?
the placenta produces progesterone and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) throughout the pregnancy and produces estrogens and corticotropin-releasing hormone toward the end of gestation
What type of screening is most common for each cancer listed here:
a.) Prostate cancer
b.) cervical cancer
c.) breast cancer
d.) testicular cancer
a.) PSA tests
b.) Pap smears
What do the embryonic mesonephric ducts form in a male embryo? What do the paramesonephric ducts form in a male embryo?
in a male embryo, the mesonephric duct forms the efferent ductules, the epididymis, the ductus deferens, and the ejaculatory duct. The paramesonephric ducts degenerate in a male embryo
What are the secondary sex characteristics in males and females, and what stimulates their development?
Males (testosterone-induced): pubic, facial, and axillary hair; enlargement of the larynx; increased secretion of sebaceous glands; and increased skeletal and muscular mass
Females (estrogen-induced): increase in subcutaneous fat at the hips and breasts and widening of the pelvic girdle
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