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physical science final
Terms in this set (104)
the sum of all forces acting on an object
force applied through a distance
when multiple forces are at work on an object, the ________ force called a __________.
combined, net force
if the net forces _________ each other out, we say that they are____________.
cancel, balanced forces
what is inertia? what is it related to?
inertia is an objects tendency to resist motion and is directly related to an object's mass
what is Sir Isaac Newton known for?
he is known for his laws of motion, known as newton's laws of motion
newtons 1st law of motion: an object at ______ tends to stay at ______ unless acted upon by an outside _____. an object in ______ tends to stay in ______ unless acted upon by an outside force.
rest, rest, force, motion, motion, force
newton's first law is also known as the law of ___________.
newtons 2nd law of motion: the _____________ of an objects is in the _______ direction as the _______ on the object.
acceleration, same, net force
what is the equation for newton's 2nd law?
what unit do we use for force?
what unit do we use for mass?
what unit do we use for acceleration?
the force that opposes the sliding motion of two surfaces that are touching each other
what 2 things does friction depend on?
type of surface, amount of force pushing the surfaces together
what 3 thing does air resistance depend on?
speed, size, and shape
what is terminal velocity?
The fastest speed a falling object can reach
what 2 things are equal when terminal velocity is reached?
force of gravity, force of air resistance
what 2 things does gravity depend on?
mass of an object, distance you are from it
gravity increases if...
the mass of either object increases, the objects move closer together
what are the 3 basic forces?
electromagnetic, strong nucleus, and weak nucleus force
the motion _________ in the solar system is affected by the gravity of ________________.
earth, all other planets
the acceleration of an object close to the earth is about _________.
the _______ force exerted on an object is referred to as its ___________.
__________ is the amount of ____________ an object has.
weight is how heavy something is, dependent on its ________ and the ________ being exerted on it.
mass x gravity
earth's ___________ causes an objects that are thrown to follow a ________ path back to the earth. this is __________________.
gravity, curved, projectile motion
when a ball has centripetal acceleration, the direction of the net force on the ball must also be toward the _________ of the curved path.
the net force exterted toward the center of a curved path is called ___________ ____________.
newton's 3rd law: for every action there is an ________ and __________ reaction
___________ and _____________ forces are _______ but act on different objects.
even though the forces are _________ they are not _______ because they act on different objects.
an object that is moving has _____________ which is related to how much ________ would be needed to change its motion.
mass x velocity
momentum cannot be _____.
momentum can be ___________ from one object to another.
the ability to do work
energy of motion
energy that is stored in an object by location on position
unit for energy
the energy contained in the movement of an object's particles
thermal (heat) energy
energy of vibration of electrically charged particles. form of energy that can travel through a vacuum( empty space)
energy of the flow of moving electrons
energy stored in bonds of atoms and molecules released through chemical reaction
stored in the nucleus of an atom; released when nucleus splits of combines
energy carried on waves that causes the molecules of material to vibrate
energy of an object due to its motion or position
energy stored in chemical bonds
chemical potential energy
a type of matter with a fixed composition
a substance in which the atoms of two or more elements are combined in a fixed proportion
anything around which you can imagine a boundary
a substance made up of atoms that are all alike
if no external forces act on a group of objects, their total momentum does not change
law of conservation of momentum
a force toward the center of a curved path
the weighted average mass of all naturally occurring isotopes of an element, measured in atomic mass units, according to their natural abundances
averge atomic mass
a table with the elements arranged by increasing atomic mass
any characteristic of a substance that indicates whether it can undergo a certain chemical change
horizontal rows on the periodic table
vertical columns on the periodic table
a mixture in which different materials remain distinct
heterogeneous mixture whose particles never settle
a heterogeneous mixture made of a liquid and solid particles that settle
the scattering of a light beam as it passes through a colloid
a mixture that remains constantly and uniformly mixed and has particles that are so small that they cannot be seen with a microscope
the same thing as a homogeneous mixture
the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is just equal to the external pressure on the liquid
any characteristic of a material that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance
a change in shape, size, or state of matter in which the identity of the substance remains that same
the process of separating substances in a mixture by evaporating a liquid and recondensing its vapor
the smallest particle of an element that retains the elements properties
the small, positively charged center of the atom
particles in the nucleus with an electric charge of 1+
electrically neutral particles in the nucleus; they do not have a charge
particles with an electric charge of 1-
area around the nucleus of an atom where the atom's electrons are most likely to be found
equal to the number of protons in atoms nucleus
the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
uses the chemical symbol of an element surrounded by dots to represent the number of electrons in the outermost energy level
electron dot diagram
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
an attractive force between any two objects that depends on the masses of the objects and the distance between them
when the only force acting on an object is gravity
the maximum speed an object will reach when falling through a substance, such as air
the amount of matter in an object
the rate at which work is converted
energy cannot be created or destroyed
law of conservation of energy
the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion
a region of space in which every point has a physical quantity, such as a force
energy that is due to the gravitational forces between objects
gravitational potential energy
the energy of stretched or compressed objects
elastic potential energy
the gravitational force exerted on an object
a push or pull
rate of change of velocity
property of a moving object that equals its mass times its velocity
characteristic or essential quality
An element _____ be separated into simpler materials (except during nuclear reactions.
the atoms of a compound are ___________ combines in some way.
compounds ___________ be separated by physical means.
the properties of a compound are usually ___________ than the properties of the elements it contains.
mixtures can be separated into their components by ______________ or ___________ means.
physical or chemical
only one type of atom present
mixture of two elements
two types of uncombined atoms present
only one type of compound present
mixture of two compounds
two types of compounds present
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