Which of the following is false regarding dinoflagellates?
a. Dinoflagellates (phylum Pyrrophyta) are abundant in both freshwater and marine environments, though they are mainly marine.
b. There are both autotrophic and heterotrophic species that have organic cell walls that do not form oozes.
c. Armored dinoflagellates have overlapping cellulose plates called theca, as opposed to athecate, unarmored dinoflagellates.
d. Some free living species are readily seen due to their bioluminescence or as red tides.
e. Endosymbiotic species, commonly called zooxanthellae, are found in sea anemones, nudibranchs, giant clam, upside-down jellyfish (Cassiopea), and in some radiolarians and foraminiferans.
f. The major pigments of dinoflagellates are chlorophyll, carotene, and xanthophyll. In the Gulf of Mexico, Karenia brevis has fucoxanthin.
g. all of the above are false
h. none of the above are false
Which is true of seaweeds?
a. All plants have the polysaccharide cellulose in their cell walls, as do algae, which is able to retain 200-300 times its own weight in water. Macroalgae further produce other gelatinous compounds that are anti-desiccation adaptations.
b. Algin is a polysaccharide extracted from brown algae and is widely used in foods to increase viscosity and as an emulsifier, as well as in medicines, paints, and paper coatings.
c. Carrageenan is a polysaccharide extracted from red algae and is widely used in food for gelling, thickening, and stabilizing. Ice cream, pudding, toothpaste, chocolate milk, salad dressings, sauces, processed meats, vegetarian hot dogs, soy milk (and other plant milks), firefighting foam, shampoo, cosmetic creams, and shoe polish can all have carrageenan additives.
d. Agarose is a gelatinous polysaccharide extracted from red algae species and is invaluable for culturing bacteria, a useful nutrient medium for germinating plant seeds, to regulate time-released medications, and in cooking, jellies, puddings, and custards.
e. All of the above are true.
a. Are a functional group of plants that live in the canopy or on the bark of other plants and are sometimes called airplants
b. Are ferns, bromeliads, and orchids in our swamps
c. Are rootless and depend upon rain for both water and nutrients, with additional nutrients from trapped, decomposing leaves and animal feces
d. Are a microhabitat within the forest with a community of dynamic, interacting organisms
e. Provide food and shelter for organisms such as bacteria, algae, protozoa, insects, frogs, lizards, and snakes
f. Are at risk to due to habitat loss, habitat fragmentation limiting pollinator access, and poaching
g. Only a and b are true
h. Only a, b, and c are true
i. All of the above are true
j. Only d is false
k. Only d and f are false