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exam 3 (ch 13,14,15,16)
Terms in this set (70)
Which of the following is the best method to sterilize heat-labile solutions?
Which of the following substances can sterilize?
Which of the following substances is used for surgical hand scrubs?
The antimicrobial activity of chlorine is due to which of the following?
The formation of hypochlorous acid
Iodophors differ from iodine (I2) in that iodophors
All of the above.
A) Are combined with a nonionic detergent.
B) Don't stain.
C) Are longer lasting.
D) Are less irritating.
Which of these disinfectants acts by denaturing proteins?
Which of the following is a limitation of the autoclave?
can't be used with heat labile materials
Which of the following does NOT achieve sterilization?
Which of the following substances is NOT effective against nonenveloped viruses?
Glutaraldehyde is considered one of the most effective disinfectants for hospital use. Which of the following statements about glutaraldehyde is false?
Stains and corrodes
If you were preparing nutrient agar at home and didn't have an autoclave, what could you use to sterilize the nutrient agar?
Pressure cooker at 121°C for 15 minutes
Which of the following describes flash pasteurization?
heating at 72°C for 15 seconds
Which of the following types of radiation is nonionizing and has the shortest wavelength?
Which of the following can be used to disinfect air?
both HEPA filters and ultraviolet light
Lysol is an example of which of the following groups of chemical antimicrobial agents?
Which of the following was used in the past to prevent the transmission of gonorrhea from an infected mother to her newborn?
Disinfectants that damage cell membranes include
both alcohol and phenolics
Which of the following antimicrobial agents is the most toxic to humans?
Which one of the following is most resistant to chemicals ( antiseptics / disinfectants)
Boiling water for 10 minutes is effective in ridding it of
both growing bacteria and enveloped viruses.
Chagas' disease is transmitted by a bug with mouthparts that penetrate blood vessels. Which type of exposure does this represent?
subjective characteristics of a disease that only the patient can feel.
In which of the following do the mucous membranes serve as a portal of entry for disease?
A pathogen is introduced into the body when the person rubs the eye with contaminated fingers and the pathogen is washed into the nasal cavity by way of tears.
Which of the following situations might cause normal microbiota to become opportunistic pathogens?
treatment of a cancer patient with radiation
Which of the following is an example of an exotoxin?
Which of the following is a sign of disease?
Which of the following is considered a mechanical vector transmission?
cockroach transmission of Shigella
Which of the following stages of an infectious disease is the most severe?
the illness period
A nosocomial disease is a disease acquired___________
in a health care facility
Aerosols may be involved in transmission of____________
inanimate objects involved in the indirect contact transmission of pathogens.
Which of the following is the correct sequence of a disease process?
incubation, prodromal period, illness, decline, convalescence
Which of the following is FALSE concerning microbial contaminants?
Most microbial contaminants will eventually cause harm
Which of the following are most likely to cause disease
highly virulent organisms
Which of the following phrases describes a contagious disease?
a disease that is easily passed from host to host in aerosoles
Consider the following case, an animal was infected with a virus. A mosquito bit the animal, was contaminated with the virus, and proceeded to bite and infect a person. Which was the vector?
A patient contracted athlete' foot after long- term use of a medication. His physician explained that the malady was directly related to the medication. Such infections are termed
Living or non-living continuous sources of infectious disease are called reservoirs of infection.
Non- living reservoirs of infection include soil, water, and inanimate objects.
Disease, also known as morbidity, is a condition sufficiently adverse to interfere with normal functioning of the body.
The most frequently used portal of entry for pathogens is the
Mucous membranes of the respiratory tract.
Which of the following diseases is NOT usually contracted by the respiratory route
The ID50 is a________
Dose that will cause an infection in 50% of the test population.
Which of the following statements is false?
Coagulase destroys blood clots.
Which of the following statements about exotoxins is generally false?
They are not destroyed by heat.
Part of the gram-negative cell wall.
Which of the following is NOT a membrane -disrupting toxin?
Cytopathic effects are changes in host cells due to___________
Which of the following does NOT contribute to the symptoms of a fungal disease?
Which of the following is NOT a method of avoiding host antibodies?
Siderophores are bacterial proteins that compete with animal
A cell wall can increase a bacterium's virulence because cell wall lipid A______
Which of the following organisms does NOT produce an exotoxin?
Which of the following cytopathic effects is cytocidal?
Release of enzymes from lysosomes
Which of the following is NOT used by bacteria for attachment to a host?
Which of the following statements about staphylococcal enterotoxin is false?
It is produced by Staphylococcus aureus growing in the host's intestines.
Lysogenic bacteriophages contribute to bacterial virulence because bacteriophages________
Give new gene sequences to the host bacteria.
Which of the following does NOT contribute to the virulence of a pathogen?
All of the above contribute to a pathogen's virulence.
Numbers of microorganisms that gain access to a host
Which of the following statements about M protein is false?
It is readily digested by phagocytes.
A needlestick is an example of which portal of entry?
Septic shock due to gram-positive bacteria is caused by
Injectable drugs are tested for endotoxins by____________
The Limulus amoebocyte lysate test.
Endotoxins in sterile injectable drugs could cause_____________
septic shock symptoms
Gram-negative septic shock results from the following events. What is the second step?
LPS is released from gram-negative bacteria.
Nonpathogenic Vibrio cholerae can acquire the cholera toxin gene by________
Antibiotics can lead to septic shock if used to treat
Gram-negative bacterial infections.
Which of the following organisms causes the most severe disease?
Which organism most easily causes an infection?
Legionella pneumophila ID50 =1
In response to the presence of endotoxin, phagocytes secrete tumor necrosis this causes
A decrease in blood pressure
Symptoms of protozoan and helminthic diseases are due to
All of the above.
Products released from damaged tissues.
Waste products excreted by the parasite.
Tissue damage due to growth of the parasite on the tissues.
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