Ethics of Technology; 7,8,9

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wisdom of crowds
ratings by public of Web site; If millions participate, the results will be useful, provided there is Diversity of opinion, Independence, Decentralization, Aggregation
singularity
point at which artificial intelligence or some combined human-machine intelligence advances so far that we cannot comprehend what lies on the other side
digital divide
some people have access to computers and information technology while others do not
Basel Convention
An international treaty to reduce the movements of hazardous waste between countries, especially from developed to less developed countries. The US signed the treaty, but US Congress has not yet ratified it.
neo-Luddite
Person who opposes information systems, fearing negative impacts such as social decay, increased consumerism, or loss of privacy
legacy systems
Older systems that are typically less technologically advanced than currently available systems
safety-critical
A ______ system is one whose failure may cause injury or death and that the safe operation of such systems relies on flawless software.
Therac-25
Machine that gives doses of radiation; in 6 cases gave massive overdoses
Ariane 5
A French Rocket that veered off course and was destroyed. The rocket used software that had worked correctly in an earlier rocket model. But, the newer rocket was faster than the older rocket. Its speed threw off velocity calculations, resulting in an "overflow" and causing the system to halt. The rocket and the satellites it was carrying cost approximately $500 million.
computer models
detailed computer programs that solve a set of complex mathematical formulas
ACM (Association for Computing Machinery)
a scientific and educational organization dedicated to advancing knowledge and proficiency of information technology
IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
A large open international community of network designers, operators, vendors, and researchers concerned with the evolution of the Internet architecture and the smooth operation of the Internet.
TCAS (Traffic Collision Avoidance System)
Computers in warn of potential dangers. U.S. and European pilots are trained to follow these instructions even if they conflict with instructs form an air traffic controller
HRO (High Reliability Organization)
an organization (business or government) that operates in difficult environments, often with complex technology, where failures can have extreme consequences
Orion
Program for figuring out the fastest route to deliver packages
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