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Chapter 10.2 Assessment
Terms in this set (8)
1.A. What are chromosomes?
Chromosomes are bundles of DNA that store most of a cell's genetic information.
1.B. How does the structure of chromosomes differ in prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
Prokaryotic chromosomes are composed of a single, circular strand of DNA. Eukaryotic chromosomes are made up of DNA that is tightly wound around histone molecules. These DNA and protein structures pack together to form condensed coils.
2.A. What is the cell cycle?
A series of events that a cell goes through as it grows and divides.
2.B. During which phase of the cell cycle are chromosomes replicated?
The S phase.
3.A. What happens during each of the four phases of mitosis? Write one or two sentences for each phase.
During prophase, DNA in the nucleus condenses and the spindle begins to form. In metaphase, the chromosomes line up and the spindle fibers attach to the centromeres. The chromosomes then separate and move to opposite ends of the cell in anaphase. During telophase, the chromosomes begin to unwind and the spindle begins to break apart.
3.B. What do you predict would happen if the spindle fibers were disrupted during metaphase?
The centromeres would not attach to the spindle, and the chromosomes could not be pulled apart during anaphase.
4.A. What is cytokinesis and when does it occur?
Cytokinesis is the division of the cytoplasm and occurs at the end of cell division.
4.B. How does cytokinesis differ in animal and plant cells?
In animal cells, the cell membrane pinches in half to form two cells. In plant cells, a cell plate forms that gradually develops into cell membranes separating the daughter cells. Eventually, a cell wall forms between the two daughter cells.
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