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Terms in this set (71)
Freud saw personality composed of...
A conscious mind, a preconscious mind, and an unconscious mind.
Freud: the conscious mind
Has knowledge of what is happening in the present
Freud: preconscious mind
Contains information from both the conscious and the unconscious mind
Freud: the unconscious mind
Contains hidden or forgotten memories or experiences
Freud: structure of personality
Contains 3 parts: the id, ego, and superego
Part of the unconscious, the id is the site of the pleasure principle. Move toward pleasure and away from pain. No sense of right or wrong and is impulsive.
In the conscious and the preconscious mind. Mediates the id and superego by controlling wishes and desires. It is the reality principle.
Sets standards and morals for the individual. It operates on the moral principle which rewards the individual for following rules/norms.
Freud: developmental stages
Oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital
Freud: ego defense mechanism
Are to protect the individual from being overwhelmed by anxiety. (examples: repression, projection, displacement, regression, denial, etc).
Adler believed people strove to...
Become successful and overcome areas of inferiority.
Adler: overcoming areas of inferiority is referred to the process of...
Personal growth as striving for perfection
Adler: those who did not overcome feelings of inferiority...
Developed an inferiority complex
Adler: those who did overcome feelings of inferiority...
Developed a superiority complex
Adler believed a persons _________ behavior was the mainstay of personality development
Adlerian theory emphasizes...
Personal responsibility for how you choose to interpret and adjust to life's events/situations
Choosing behavior resulting in a lack of social interests or personal growth
A person is as influenced by future goals as by past experiences
Adler's view on birth order
Believed that birth order in the family influenced many aspects of their personality development
Adler: oldest child
High achievers, parent pleasers, well behaved
Adler: second born
Outgoing, less anxious, less constrained by rules. Usually excel as what the first born does not.
Adler: middle child
Feel squeezed in and are concerned with unfair treatment, excel in family negotiation, can be manipulative
Adler: youngest child
Pleasing/entertaining the family, usually spoiled, run the risk of getting what they want through social skills/ability to please, high achievers
Rogers view on human nature
Viewed human nature as basically good
Rogers believed that if given the appropriate environment of acceptance, warmth, and empathy that the individual would...
Move towards self-actualization
The motivation that makes the individual move towards growth, meaning, and purpose
Rollo May and Viktor Frankl
Existentialists believe that the individual...
Writes their own life story by the choices that they make
Psychopathology is defined by existentialists as...
Neglecting to make meaningful choices and accentuating one's potential
Existentialism views anxiety as...
A motivational force that helps the clients to reach their potential
According to Frankl, life's meaning can be discovered in 3 ways...
1. by doing a deed
2. by experiencing a value
3. by suffering
Existential counselors do not...
Diagnose or use assessment models such as the DSM
Goal of existential counseling...
To have the clients take responsibility for their life and life decisions
Goal of psychoanalytic therapy
1. help the client bring the unconscious into the conscious
2. help the client work through a developmental stage that was not resolved
3. help the client adjust to the demands of work, intimacy, and society
Goals of individual psychotherapy (Adlerian counseling)
1. help the client develop a healthy lifestyle and social interests
2. assist the client through four goals of the therapeutic process (establishing a therapeutic relationship, examining the style of life, developing insight, and changing behavior)
Goals for client-centered therapy
Helping the client towards:
1. realistic self-perception
2. greater confidence and self-direction
3. sense of positive worth
4. greater maturity
5. better stress coping
6. more fully functioning in all aspects of their lives
A Gestalt means...
Gestalt therapy is based on...
The person feeling whole or complete in their life
What type of focus is Gestalt therapy?
Here and now therapy focusing on awareness with the belief that when one focuses on what they are and not what they wish to become they will become self-actualized
Gestalt therapy believes that through self acceptance one becomes...
Gestaltists believe that people have the ability to...
Change and become responsible
Goals of Gestalt therapy
1. emphasis on the here and now
2. client is encouraged to make choices based on the now as opposed to the past
3. help the client resolve the past
4. assist the client to become congruent
5. help the client reach maturity
Rational-Emotive Therapy assumes that individuals have the capacity to be...
Rational, irrational, sensible, or crazy which they believe is biologically inherent
What is Ellis most concerned with? (RET)
Irrational thinking which created upsetting or irrational thoughts
Ellis believes that each individual has the the ability to control their...
Thoughts, feelings, and their actions
Ellis believed that in order for individuals to control their thoughts, feelings, and actions they must first...
Understand what they are telling themselves (self-talk) about the event or situation
Ellis believes that cognitions about events can be of 4 types...
Goals of Rational-Emotive therapy
1. help people live rational and productive lives
2. helps people see that their thoughts and beliefs about events are what create difficulties, not the events themselves
3. assists people in changing self-defeating behaviors/cognitions
Transactional analysis therapy (Eric Berne) believes that people...
Can change despite life's events and that it is never too late to change one's life
Transactional analysis therapy uses 4 major methods to analyze and predict behavior...
1. structural analysis
2. transactional analysis
3. game analysis
4. script analysis
Transactional analysis therapy method: structural analysis
Looks at what is happening within the individual
Transactional analysis therapy method: transactional analysis
Looks at what is happening between two or more people
Transactional analysis therapy method: game analysis
Looks at transactions between individuals leading to negative feelings
Transactional analysis therapy method: script analysis
Looks at the life plan the individual has chosen to follow
Goals of Transactional Analysis therapy
1. learn to adjust to life and attain health and autonomy
2. gaining autonomy the client can be more aware and live free of games and self-defeating life scripts
A basic tenet of Behaviorism is that...
All behavior is learned whether the behavior is maladaptive or adaptive
Behaviorists believe that adaptive behavior...
Can be learned to replace maladaptive behavior
Behaviorists believe in setting up what in therapy?
Well defined, measurable, and observable goals in therapy
Goals of Behaviorist therapy
1. improve the life of the client through better adjustments to life
2. achieve personal goals
Behaviorists 4 steps in developing therapeutic goals...
1. define the problem (when, where, how, and with whom the problem exists)
2. take a developmental history of the problem and what solutions the client has tried in the past
3. establish specific subgoals in steps toward the final goal
4. determine the best behavioral method to be used to help the client change
Transactional Analysis (Eric Berne): Structural Analysis describes each person in terms of 3...
Structural Analysis: Parent ego state
contains the parental values with dos, shoulds, and oughts
Structural Analysis: Adult ego state
contains the objective, thinking, rational, and logical ability to deal with reality
Structural Analysis: Child ego state
the source of childlike behaviors and feelings
Recommended textbook explanations
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
Myers' Psychology for the AP Course
David G Myers
A Concise Introduction To Logic (Mindtap Course List)
Lori Watson, Patrick J. Hurley
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
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