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explain how to use the p<.o5 to determine rejection of the null hypothesis, assuming the author is using a significance level of .05

you would reject. if you refect the null hypothesis then you take the next hypothesis. it's quantitative

null hypothesis

no difference, no significance, no relationship, etc.

what type of study is designed to gather knowledge that has direct clinical application?

applied research

applied research

performed in practical setting w/ subjects that represent the group. used in most nursing research

identify the dependent variable in the following hypothesis: "exercisers exhibit higher self-efficacy scores compared to non-exercisers."

dependent: self-efficacy
independent: exercising (also population of interest in this ex)
the research is quantitative b/c we/re comparing. aka a directional alternative hypothesis

dependent variable is the _


independent variable is _

what you are doing/ the cause

what do we call hypotheses that do not specify a particular direction in relation to variables under study?

a NON directional

as a general rule, level of significance do researchers most often use?

.05 or 95% for nursing
higher risk for mortality

give an an example of a null hypothesis.

no difference, no correlation, etc. must be stated in the hypothesis

what sampling method is the best way to select a group of subjects if you are interested in making statements about the larger population?


the most meaningful research problems come from what sources

nursing practice: theory, riew lit, replication

all members of a population have an equal chance of being selected as subjects in a research project. what type of sampling is this called?


you decide to select a sample of 100 subjects of whom 10% will be african american, 10% hispanic, & 80% caucasian. identify the appropriate sampling design.

quota sampling

quota sampling

represent culture and ethnicity appropriately. if you attach a number it becomes quota & cant stop until you get that percent

what type of theory is complex & broad in scope?

grand theory

what is are forms of nonrandom sampling

snowball effect,
convenient sampling,
purposive sampling

describe the types of reliability

interrater (consistency between researchers, coding, responses, etc)
internal consistency (questions are internally consistent)

what types of criterion-related validity evidence

concurrent (happening at the same time is their validity between the 2),
predictive (how you do in testing in class will predict how you will do on nclex)

test-retest reliability focuses on the _ of an instrument?

consistency (you can do it again & again) [validity means did it answer the question you asked)

accurately describe test-retest reliability

amount of time between time test was taken. environment, etc can make a difference. it's stronger if use repeated measures of diff types (ex. test w/ stick & send it to lab for culture test or fast strep test then culture)

a variable is a measurable characteristic that varies in what

populations (population of interest)

as a nurse you rate a patients pain on a scale from "no pain" as 0 to "greatest pain ever" as 10. this results in what type of scale?

cue methodology. [Pg. 139.] ordinal-this is lowest to highest w/o equal diff. between them

likert scales are sometimes referred to as _.

summative scale

ex. of likert scale

strongly disagree, disagree, agree, strongly agree. use as numbers to organize but you can sum

the tendency for participants to respond to an item on a questionnaire in a way that does no reflect the real situation is called a _.


_ observation is usually done for studying and describing a culture in a natural setting. it's also reffered to as _.

participant observation

what is an ex of a historical event that emphasizes the protection of individuals from risk or harm in research

declaration of helsinki,
nuremberg code.
specific to protective individual

both open ended & closed ended questionnaires are used in research. what type of questions are used for qualitative _ & what type of questions are used for quantitative.

open ended questions,
close ended questions

describe 3 types of methods of data collection


what is the purpose of descriptive statistics?

observe data. its quantitative

what level of measurement represents the highest level


in what type of study is the treatment assignment unknown to only the patient

single blinded

define characteristics of a research critique

evaluates major aspects, clear & concise, explanations that justifies comments, do's and don'ts (pg 252-255?)

what value represents the 50th percentile or midpoint of a distribution


there are several ways in which confounding extraneous variables an be controlled. what control technique is considered the best?

true experimental design, random assignment

what can be used for randomly assigning subjects to groups in an experimental study?

draw out of hat,
computer programs, etc

investigators working on a burn unit measured the amount of wound granulation, the number of wound infections, and the extent of the burn injury on all burn patients. what finding would be most important to researchers in relation to successful random assignment

extent of burn injury

control groups in experiments are used to_

determine if the independent variable is caused by the dependent variable

the group that receives the experimental treatment condition is the _ group

experimental/ manipulated

true experiments are designed primarily to answer questions that test _

theories (hypotheses). causes, the cause & effect

_ research is used to describe the lied experience


a research approach that involves prolonged residence w/members of a culture being studied is often referred to as_

field work/ cultural anthropology

a form of qualitative stat analysis that categorizes unit of meaning through a process of comparing incident to incident is _

constant comparative method of data analysis

the term used to describe preconceptions and feelings about a phenomenon is _

qualitative approach

grounded theory has its disciplinary origin in an emerging design, common in _

qualitative research, self care, adaptation. to develop grand theories

a brief summary of research study is often referred to as _

an abstract

indicate where in the research report the following statement is likely to be found. "the sample consisted of 88 individuals w/cancer, assessed as being at risk for nutritional problems, as indicated by weight loss over 5% over a 2 month period or persistent changes in patterns of eating."

results section (note use of the past tense w/ the data)

the extent to which research findings can be generalized beyond the given research situation is referred to as_

external validity

indicate where in the research report, the following statement is likely to be found: "the correlation of r=0.40, found in the present study, is consistent w/ the works of jones in 1983 who reported similar results in her study of college-age adults..."

discussion (note it compares to someone else's researh

in what section of a research report are results of a study explained and interpreted


in critiquing a research report where would recommendations made by the researcher for nursing practice be found


a distinguishing characteristic of evidence based practice as compared w/ traditional nursing practice is the use of _

scientific method

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