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AP US History Chapter Flashcards (3)

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John Calvin
French humanist whose theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Developed Calvinism at Geneva. Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion
Anne Hutchinson
She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.
Roger Williams
English clergyman and colonist who was expelled from Massachusetts for criticizing Puritanism
Henry Hudson
English navigator who discovered the Hudson River
William Bradford
United States printer (born in England) whose press produced the first American prayer book and the New York City's first newspaper (1663-1752)
Peter Stuyvesant
the last Dutch colonial administrator of New Netherland
William Laud
Archbishop of Canterbury who denied Puritan rights and tried to impose a form of the Book of Common Prayer on the Scots
Thomas Hooker
A Puritan minister who led about 100 settlers out of Massachusetts Bay to Connecticut because he believed that the governor and other officials had too much power. He wanted to set up a colony in Connecticut with strict limits on government.
William Penn
Englishman and Quaker who founded the colony of Pennsylvania (1644-1718)
John Winthrop
As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Winthrop (1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.
King Philip
English name for Metacon who forged an alliance among Indians to try to end the spread of English settlement
John Cotton
prominent Mass minister, believed that only the spiritual "elect" should have any authority, to become "elect" they have a conversion experience, caused dissension in colony and would eventually lead to the founding of new colonies
Sir Edmund Andros
Governor of the Dominion of New England from 1686 until 1692, when the colonists rebelled and forced him to return to England
the "elect"
the name for the people who are the ones who God has chosen to save in predestination. This is the belief of the Calvinism religion and that only these people can be saved and ordinary people cannot earn salvation. This belief was started by John Calvin in 1536 in France when he published "Institutes of the Christian Religion" and is still the belief of Calvinists today.
franchise
a business established or operated under an authorization to sell or distribute a company's goods or services in a particular area
patroonship
A vast Dutch feudal estates fronting the Hudson River in early 1600s. They were granted to promoters who agreed to settle 50 people on them.
predestination
(theology) being determined in advance
freemen
colonial period; term used to describe indentured servants who had finished their terms of indenture and could live freely on their own land.
"visible saints"
according to Puritans, only these individuals should be admitted to church membership
conversion
a spiritual enlightenment causing a person to lead a new life
doctrine of a calling
Puritan belief that they are responsible to do God's work on earth
covenant
(Bible) an agreement between God and his people in which God makes certain promises and requires certain behavior from them in return
antinomianism
the theological doctrine that by faith and God's grace a Christian is freed from all laws (including the moral standards of the culture)
Protestant Reformation
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
Pilgrims
English Puritans who founded Plymouth colony in 1620
New England Confederation
1643 - Formed to provide for the defense of the four New England colonies, and also acted as a court in disputes between colonies.
Calvinism
the theological system of John Calvin and his followers emphasizing omnipotence of God and salvation by grace alone
Massachusetts Bay Company
joint-stock company chartered by Charles I in 1629. It was controlled by Non-Separatists who took the charter with them to New England and, in effect, converted it into a written constitution for the colony.
Dominion of New England
1686-The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros
Institutes of the Christian Religion
Written by John Calvin, it contained four books which codified Protestant theology. Among these beliefs were the ultimate authority of the word of God, the depravity of man, and his belief that the Bible is the only source of Revelation.
Navigation Laws
Promoted English shipping and control colonial trade; made Americans ship all non-British items to England before going to America
Great Puritan Migration
Many Puritans migrated from England to North America during the 1620s to the 1640s due to belief that the Church of England was beyond reform. Ended in 1642 when King Charles I effectively shut off emigration to the colonies with the start of the English Civil War.
Glorious Revolution
the revolution against James II
Puritans
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
General Court
a Puritan representative assembly elected by the freemen; they assisted the governor; this was the early form of Puritan democracy in the 1600's
Dutch West India Company
Trading company chartered by the Dutch government to conduct its merchants' trade in the Americas and Africa.
Seperatists
people who seperated from the Church of England
Bible Commonwealth
name for the Massachusetts Bay colony that refers to its tax supported churches and visible saints.
Quakers
a Christian sect founded by George Fox about 1660
Mayflower
the ship in which the Pilgrim Fathers sailed from England to Massachusetts in 1620
Protestant ethic
Sociological term used to define the Calvinist belief in hard work to illustrate selection in elite group
Mayflower Compact
This document was drafted in 1620 prior to settlement by the Pilgrims at Plymouth Bay in Massachusetts. It declared that the 41 males who signed it agreed to accept majority rule and participate in a government in the best interest of all members of the colony. This agreement set the precedent for later documents outlining commonwealth rule.
Fundamental Orders
document which established a regime democratically controlled by the substantial citizens of Hartford