the average of all the scores (i.e., if the data set was 12, 2, 12, 5, 5, 7, 5, 9, 5,
the average score would be 6.8).
the score found directly in the center of the data when the data is arranged in order from lowest to highest (i.e., if the data set was 2, 5, 5, 5, 5, 7, 9, 12, 12, the score directly in the middle/center would be 5). the score that occurs most frequently (i.e., if the data set was 12, 2, 12, 5, 5, 7, 5, 9, 5, the most frequently occurring score would be 5). represents the full range of scores, the lowest value to highest value in a data set (i.e., if the data set was 12, 2, 12, 5, 5, 7, 5, 9, 5, the range of scores would be 2-12). the dispersion of data around the mean; for example, if the data set was 12, 2, 12, 5, 5, 7, 5, 9, 5 with a mean of 6.89, the standard deviation To date no study has focused on the food color groups (red, blue, orange, green, and white) of fruits and vegetables and colon cancer. A researcher recruits 500 people with colon cancer from oncology surgical units of regional hospitals and samples another 500 very similar people (e.g., age, socioeconomic status) who had surgery but not for cancer, from the general surgery units of regional hospitals. The participants were asked to recall the types of fruits and vegetables they ate on a regular basis; the researcher was looking to compare food color groups (fruits and vegetables) between those with colon cancer and those without colon cancer. Scenario adapted from Lee, Shin, Oh, and Kim A study sought to investigate factors that influence women's health. Female students were identified and randomly selected (n = 200,000) from the national student loan database. The women selected consented to be followed for 20 years. At the start of the study, none of the women had been diagnosed with cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or HIV. Annually, they completed questionnaires and allowed the researchers access to their medical records. While cancer was the "primary focus, the study has also produced landmark data on cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and many other conditions. Most importantly, [this] study show[ed] that diet, physical activity and other lifestyle factors can powerfully promote better health." Example adapted from http://www.channing.harvard.edu/nhs/
Which study design was used?
A questionnaire was sent to 1,500 randomly selected individuals who had been admitted to a hospital for a length of 7 or more days (May 1, 2016 to June 30, 2017). During data analysis, the researcher wanted to see which of the following variables were associated with confidence in the medical team: patient demographic infor- mation, physicians' ethnicity, hospital location, amount of time physician spent with patient, level of empathy from the medical team, health literacy of the patient, visits from the chaplain service, and number of visitors the patient had. Data anal- ysis revealed a strong positive relationship between empathy and confidence. The analysis also revealed that the lower the patients' health literacy, the lower the rates of confidence in the medical team. All other variables revealed no association with confidence. This study underscores the association between confidence in medicalcare and the medical team's ability to communicate medical information to patients in an effective manner.
Which study design was used?