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Arts and Humanities
Totalitarianism, Fascism, Nazis, Spanish Civil War
Terms in this set (63)
EX: totalitarian dictatorship
Adolf Hitler (Germany)
Benito Mussolini (Italy)
Joesph Stalin (Soviet Union)
Kim Il Sung (North Korea)
Saddam Hussein (Iraq)
How does a totalitarian state attempt to make citizens obey its rules?
2. propaganda, and censorship
3. Control of mass media
4. terror and violence
an authoritarian and nationalistic right-wing system of government and social organization that encourages violence; loyalty to state and leader
Hierarchy (class struggles are denied; against equality)
Prioritizing group over individual
Expansion of empire
What is fascism against?
Difference between communism and fascism
1. Hierachy vs classless society
2. nationalists vs communists who were internationalists
2. look out for what is best for the society as a whole and thus self-sacrifice is a part of both.
3. Uses censorship
4. Denies find. rights
What factors led to the rise of fascism in the 1920s and 30s
The biggest factor that led to the rise of fascism was World War I: people wanted strong leadrship to fix their economic distress. Economic downfall transpired in the form of the Great Depression of 1929, which caused global hardship. Also, Germany felt like the Treaty of Versaille went against them, which caused aggression. Moreover, Germany suffered hyperinflation in 1923 from trying to pay back the reparations from the war.
why did fascism begin in Italy?
ppl wanted unity
What was the global response to the rise of fascism?
Fascism divided the world: some people supported fascism, whereas other countries feared fascism and losing their liberties. Germany, Italy, and Japan were fascist countries. The US used the policy of neutrality in response to fascist aggressions.
Who liked and who didnt like fascism?
People who worried about communism: The lower middle class, aristocrats, industrialists, war veterans
The Soviet Union was against fascism because they were a communist regime (Stalin wanted the Soviet Union to remain communist)
The US was against fascism because they did not want to lose their voting rights
Germany, Italy, and Japan took part in Fascism
How did Spanish Civil War volunteers of the American Lincoln Brigade define fascism? What motivated them to fight against this ideology?
They were a group of US volunteer students, who didn't have military training, but they fought in the Spanish Civil War. They were motivated by their own economic deprivation, which caused them to join leftist parties. Also, they hated fascism because it took away people's freedoms, and they probably feared losing their liberties if the United States became fascist.
What makes fascism attractive to people?
A strong government
Better and stronger military and thus protection
Speeds up decision making process
Racists - blames someone
promised to revive economy and punish those responsible for hard times
Compare and contrast economics of fascism and Soviet Communism
Opposed to free-market capitalism
Private profits go to the state
Managed by government
Opposed to a complete free-market capitalism
Private profits do not go to the government, but have to serve the national interest
Compare and contrast politics of F and SC
*Emphasizes the importance of an absolute State
Compare and contrast SC and F social principles
*Glorifying the leader
Goal is equality
*All are equal besides the leader
*Glorifying the leader
Glorifies holiness and heroism
Great saviour of the nation
Anti-suicide (life is a duty of conquest)
*The state is all aspects of society, it has a will, personality, and consciousness
Denies class struggle
How was Benito Mussolini able to come to power in Italy? (1922)
Italy wanted leader to take action after failure to win large territorial gains in 1919 Paris Peace Conference, rising inflation, and unemployment which had led to social unrest
What is Benito Mussolini known for
founding the Fascist Party (1919)
How did the fascists take over in Italy?
March on Rome (1922): Groups of fascists attacked the communists and socialists and demanded that the King put Mussolini in charge
What did Mussolini do once in charge?
1. Abloished democracy
2. gov censorship
3. tried to take control of economy but never able to achieve complete control (however does revive economy)
National Socialist German Workers Party (1919)
Adolf Hitler used fascism to create this type of government based on totalitarian ideas and was used to unite Germany during the 1930s.
Who were the Brown Shirts?
Hitler's private army
How did Hitler come to power?
Great Depression and American loans stopped -> ppl looked to Hitler for firm leadership
Hitler's book about how Arayans were superior to non aryans (jews slavs and gypsies)
living space (Hitler thought Germany was overcrowded and wanted to conquer parts of Russia and Eur)
How did Hitler become the chancellor?
conservative leaders thought they could control Hitler so they recommended that he was elected (1933)
What did Hitler do as chancellor?
Called for new elections to gain parliamentary majority -> won majority and turned Germany into totalitarian state and unemployment numbers dropped
what did the SS do?
killed Germans into obedience
(Night of the Broken Glass) November 9, 1938, when mobs throughout Germany destroyed Jewish property and terrorized Jews -> start of the genocide
Which Eur. countries were the only ones to remain democratic?
Britain, France, Scandinavian countries
League's failure to stop Japanese encouraged Eur. Fascists to attack other countries
Mussolini invaded Eithiopia (1935)
The Leagues failure to stop Germany from building a bigger army
caused Hitler to also disobey the VT provision of not being able to enter Rhine River area (1936)
What was Britain's reponse?
Appeasement- giving in to an agressor to keep peace
How did this mark a turning point in the war?
Sped up Hitler's expansion
Who were the axis powers?
Germany, Italy, Japan
When did Spain experience a shift from monarchy to republic?
Republic supported by doctors, lawyers, teachers, - reformers who want Spain to modernize to look like USA or England
Not supported by: military, church, land aristocracy
What led to the Spanish-American War?
1936 - Republican/Popular Front factions won government control
REACTION - Nationalists (with the support of the army and led by Francisco Franco) began to plot a coup. 1936 Nationalists rose up to overthrow the government and civil War ensued
Fascist leader of the Spanish revolution, helped by Hitler and Mussolini
He was nationalist and was against the republicans (supporters of Spain's elected gov and volunteers of US and such)
he became dictator (1939)
How did France and Britain fight fascism?
they made concessions hoping to keep peace bc they worried about enduring another war
the belief that political ties to other countries should be avoided (Neutrality Acts banning loans and sale of arms to other countries; US policy)
German empire (hitler annexed Austria and tried to take Czech)
Munich Conference (1938)
During the Munich Conference of 1938, Britain and France met with Hitler, allowing him to take over Czechoslovakia as long as he agreed to expand no further. The agreement was seen as an assurance of peace.
True or False in 1939, Hitler and Stalin signed a nonagression pact toward each other
Phase 1 of holocaust
Planning Propaganda (1933-1939) - Hitler came to power and starts to isolate Jews from the rest of the population and arm the army for conquest
1935 laws defining the status of Jews and withdrawing citizenship from persons of non-German blood.
Night of Broken Glass (Kristallnacht) 1938
Hershel Grynszpan shot man as revenge and Nazis then attacked Jews across Germany
Phase 2 of holocaust
Expansion and Violence (Sept. 1939- June 1941)- increasing German violence to other countries, the SS, creating ghettos, Germany invades the Soviet Union
Hitler tries to promote emigration
after a while countries stop accepting refugees
Phase 3 of holocaust
Dedication to Mass Killing (1941-1944) - killing at concentration camps and starving of the civilian population
overcrowded, segregated Jewish areas where Jews were sent to starve or die from disease
Final Solution (1942)
program of genocide (hitler wanted faster approach than ghettos)
Phase 4 of holocaust
End of War (Jan 1945- May 1945) Liberation of Auschwitz, death marches (shot along the way leaving concentration camps) ¼ million died
John Maynard Keynes
regulated socialism- argued that for a nation to recovery fully from a depression, the govt had to spend money to encourage investment and consumption
Friedrich von Hayek
Wanted no government intervention. Defended free market capitalism - system could fix itself.
What was the impact of WWI on economic thought and theory at the end of WWI?
WWI changed economic thought from socialism and communism.
What is the basic theory behind libertarianism? (Ludwig von Mises)
Ludwig von Mises believed markets needed to be free from the government.
The great flaw of socialism is that it does not have a functioning price system telling people how much things cost.
What did Lenin call "The Commanding Heights " of an economy?
Infrastructure (steel, powerplants, coal, electricity, etc.); what he considered the most important parts of the economy.
What is "central planning"?
Central planning is where the communist party controlled every aspect of the economy in Russia. (Stalin's idea)
When and what was Black Thursday?
Black Thursday was in 1929 when prices plunged and the stock market crashed.
How did Franklin Delano Roosevelt utilize Keynes ideas to help bring the USA out of an economic depression? What was his program called?
Franklin Delano Roosevelt utilized Keynes's ideas to help bring the USA out of an economic depression by setting up a program called the New Deal,
"most influential economist of the age?"
What did Keynes suggest governments should do
In good times? Interest rates should go up and the government should start paying off debt; increase taxes
In bad times? The government should step up spending.
How did the US rebound?
Wage and price controls
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