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American Nat. Gov. Exam 1 Review Chapter 2 &3 Dr. Breezeel
Terms in this set (57)
What are the primary functions of government identified in class?
Provide Security and Promote Prosperity
What is the difference between internal and external security?
Internal- protection from crime or others within your political system
External- protection from invasion or others outside your political system
What are the three types of power (ways it can be exercised)?
Coercion- influence tied to force or threat
Rewards/Incentives- influence tied to provision of desired benefits or resources
Persuasion- influence comes from convincing the other party that they want what you want
Which is the most likely to be effective in the long term?
What is legitimacy?
Power and authority obtained and exercised through socially prescribed means
How do leaders and governments obtain legitimacy?
In Constitutional Systems, obtained through elections and defined processes
What is the source of legitimacy according to divine right theory?
What is the source of authority according to social contract theory?
Consent of the Governed; Authority is created by society, not God
What is the social contract associated with that theory?
Declaration of Independence
Under both theories, when is it acceptable for someone to rebel against the government/king?
Social Contract: Revolution
Both: When rulers break the contract
How does the Declaration of Independence reflect social contract theory?
God as the source of "unalienable rights"
-Life, Liberty, and pursuit of happiness
People as creators of government
Source of Power- Consent of Governed
What are the unalienable rights identified in the Declaration of Independence?
All men are created equal, life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
What is a constitution?
Written document formalizing the social contract, representing the highest form of law established by government, establishing the fundamental laws of the land, and defining the limits on governmental power
What functions are served by constitutions? (Be able to identify examples of each)
Public statement of ideals
-common emphasis in preamble or introduction
-expression of goals
Define the Agents and Institutions
-all legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the U.S.
Define Powers and Relations within Government
-the President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the U.S.
Establish Legitimacy of Government
-defining proper way to obtain power
-defining how power exercised
What does the principle of constitutionalism refer to?
Commitment to Rule of Law
Why are the Magna Carta, Mayflower Compact, and Colonial Charters important in this area?
They represent the first steps into a Constitutional Government. Our Constitution was developed from the beliefs in these documents
What basic philosophies were associated with the framers in class discussion?
Defense of liberty as a natural right
Hobbes: to have an all powerful government or democracy was impossible
Locke: all men cherish and seek to protect life, liberty, and property.
How is power distributed within a Confederation?
Power rests in each individual state, but the central government get its authority from the independent states.
How is power distributed within a Unitary System?
Central government, then to the state governments, and then to the citizens
How is power distributed within a Federal System?
Power divided between central and state governments. Both the government and constituent governments act directly upon the citizens. Both must agree to constitutional change.
How was power distributed between national and state governments in the Articles of Confederation?
States had the power to tax. Congress could raise money, but only by asking the states for funds.
What were the primary characteristics of the government created by the Articles of Confederation?
Composed of a Congress, which had the power to declare war, appoint military officers, sign treaties, make alliances, appoint foreign ambassadors, and manage relations with Indians.
What were the primary obstacles to effective government under the Articles of Confederation?
No power to impose taxes, couldn't pay debts, or secure funds
Why was Shay's Rebellion important?
Had a powerful effect on opinion.
Washington: "If the rebels have real grievances, redress them; if they have not, employ the force of government against them at once."
Jefferson: "A little rebellion now and then is a good thing. The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants."
What were the principle areas of conflict associated with the Constitutional Convention?
Large States and Small States, Anti-slavery and Pro-slavery, Federalist and Anti-Federalists
How did large state (Virginia Plan) and small state (New Jersey Plan) proposals differ?
Virginia: 1) a national legislature would have supreme powers on all matters on which the separate states were not competent to act, as well as the power to veto any an all state laws
2) at least on house of legislature would be elected by the people
New Jersey: each state got 1 vote, Congress had power, but not as much as they did in the Virginia plan
How were each of the major areas of political conflict addressed in the final draft of the Constitution?
Slavery: 3/5 Compromise
L vs S States: The Great Compromise
Fed vs A-Fed: Bill of Rights
How did the structure of Congress relate to the large and small state proposals?
House based on population (Virginia Plan)
Senate with states receiving equal number of seats (New Jersey Plan)
How did the Constitution distribute power between the national and state governments?
Federalism: National Supremacy in some areas, States remained sovereign in others
What compromises addressed the conflict over slavery?
How are separation of powers and checks & balances incorporated into the Constitution?
Authority is shared by 3 branches of government. They keep each other in check.
What 2 key principles are associated with the American version of representative democracy?
Electioning national and state officials
What are enumerated, reserved, and concurrent powers?
Enumerated: powers given to the national government alone.
Reserved: powers given to the state governments alone.
Concurrent: powers shared by the national and state governments.
What type of political system was created by the U.S. Constitution?
Federal Democratic Republic Government
Who were the Federalists and Anti-Federalists?
Federalists: believed that there was no need for a Bill of Rights
Anti-Federalists: believed the Bill of Rights was needed
Why did the founders initially decide not to include a Bill of Rights in the Constitution?
It was redundant
What arguments were made by those on each side of the conflict over the Bill of Rights?
Federalists: believed that there was no need for a Bill of Rights, because the Constitution only granted limited powers to the federal government.
Anti-Federalists: believed the Bill of Rights was needed, because the supremacy clause in combination with the necessary and proper and general welfare clauses would allow implied powers that could cause endangered rights.
What functions are performed by the Bill of Rights?
Provide protection from the government and provide legitimacy for political opposition
According to the textbook, what was the primary goal of the American Revolution?
What is dual federalism?
Doctrine holding that the national government is supreme in its sphere, the states are supreme in theirs, and the two spheres should be kept seperate.
How is cooperative federalism defined in the text?
Idea that the federal and state governments share power in many policy areas.
What is nullification?
The doctrine that a state can declare null and void a federal law that, in the state's opinion, violates the Constitution
How does the textbook define cooperative federalism?
Idea that the federal and states governments share power in many policy areas.
How has the 14th Amendment affected federalism in the United States?
This amendment supplies a new protection to natural or fundamental rights against threats to those rights by the states. This can be called "corrective federalism," that is, the state governs, but if they misstep on rights, the federal government can correct them.
How has the 16th Amendment affected the relationship between the states and the U.S. government?
It played a central role in building up the powerful American federal government of the 20th century by making it possible to enact a moder, nationwide income tax. This income tax would become by far the federal government's largest source of revenue.
How has the 17th Amendment affected federalism?
It also altered the principal mechanism employed by the framers to protect federalism. This amendment abandones what the framers regarded as the crucial constitutional means for protecting federalism.
How has the Supreme Court affected the balance of power between the states & national government?
In recent years the Supreme Court has been trying to take more control from the states.
What are grants-in-aid?
money given by the national government to the states
How important are grants-in-aid to the state governments?
Very important. Federal money seemed so attractive. Federal money seemed to be "free" money.
How can grants-in-aid increase the power and influence of the national government?
They can decide which state to give money to and what for
What is the difference between a block grant and a categorical grant?
Categorical: Federal grants for specific purposes, such as building an airport
Block: a grant from central government which a local authority can allocate to a wide range of services.
Which type of grant tends to be preferred by state governments?
What do the authors identify as the most obvious effect of federalism?
Increased political activity
What are federal mandates? What is a preemption?
Terms set by the government that states must meet whether or not hey accept federal grants.
The purchase of goods or shares by one person or party before the opportunity is offered to the others.
What was the significance of the Supreme Court's decision in McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)?
States could not tac an agency of the national government.
What are the three forms of direct democracy employed in many states?
Participatory, Deliberative, ?
How did the Supreme Court case of US v Lopez address the extent of federal power?
The national government's power under the commerce clause does not permit it to regulate matters not directly related to interstate commerce (in this case, banning firearms in a school zone).
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