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The Enlightenment (Age of Reason)
Thinkers and their political philosophies
Terms in this set (21)
17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy
French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive, legislative and judicial powers
English political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679), but that this rule was legitimate thanks to the social contract theory
Voltaire (Francois-Marie Arouet)
French political philosopher whose primary political doctrine was in opposition to rule by divine right, and championed freedom of thought and expression
Scottish economist who wrote the Wealth of Nations; Father of Capitalism; laissez faire economics, "invisible hand", minimalist state and free trade.
One of the authors of the Declaration of Independence, heavily influenced by the European Enlightenment thinkers
America's first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of press "ought not to be restrained", taking up Voltaire's emphasis on freedom of expression.
United States statesman and leader of the Federalists
American intellectual, inventor, and politician He helped to negotiate French support for the American Revolution.
"Father of the Constitution," Federalist leader, and fourth President of the United States.
A form of government in which the interests of the people are served by elected representatives. Type of gov't chosen by the Founding Fathers. People vote for representatives who then make laws. People do not vote directly on legislation.
Social Contract Theory
The belief that the people give their consent to be governed by a common political authority in the interest of the common good.
Separation of Powers and Checks and Balances
The powers granted to the new State governments were purposely divided among three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. Each branch was given powers with which to check (restrain the actions of) the other branches of the government. In this way, no one branch could monopolize gov't functions or wield absolute power.
the basic rights to which all people are entitled as human beings (such as life, liberty, and property)
the study of fundamental questions about the social institutions like the state, government, politics, liberty, justice and the enforcement of a legal code by a common authority
freedom and equality, individualism and growth
Primary values of the Enlightenment philosophy, particularly that of politics
treatise and doctrine
A formal and systematic written discourse on some subject, generally longer and treating it in greater depth than an essay
A body of enforceable rules governing relationships among and between individuals and their social institutions (such as government).
supreme and autonomous power or authority; (adj.) lawful, rightful; reasonable, justifiable (especially in reference to government)
the exercise of absolute power, especially in a cruel and oppressive way. (tyranny)
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