Psychodynamic approach
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Examined the attachment relationship between parents and their children with four stages. Believes children are born with a variety of behaviors that encourage parents and others to be near to them. These proximity-seeking behaviors include laughing, gurgling and crying. Attachment develops over period of time; mainly achieved by the caregiving tasks.John BowlbyBelieves that children's thinking passed through four separate stages and changed qualitatively in each of these stages. Emphasized the importance of maturation and the provision of stimulating environment for children to explore. Children are active learnersJean PiagetBirth to 2 years. Six sub-stages that also show significant gains in the child's thinking as they progress through infancy. Using physical or motor skills and senses to explore world and develop cognitive understandings.Piaget's sensory-motor stage2 to 7 years. Less reliant upon senses and physical exploration. "illogical" thinkers. The inability to conserve is a feature in this stage.Piaget's pre-operational stage7 to 12 years. Beginning to demonstrate more logical thinking, but need concrete tools to help them reach logical conclusions. Ex: working through mathematical problems with blocks.Piaget's concrete operations12 years and over. This final stage encompasses the rest of our lives. Able to deal with much more complex issues at this stage.Piaget's formal operationsSociocultural theory relates to both cognitive and social development. Emphasized the importance of relationships and interactions between children and more knowledgeable peers and adults. Children learn within social interactions. Sees children as active partners in their own learning. "Scaffolding" children. Four stags of conceptual developmentLev Vygotskythinking in unordered heapsVygotsky's first stage of conceptual developmentthinking in complex stagesVygotsky's second stage of developmentthinking in concepts stageVygotsky's third stage of developmentthinking in true concepts stageVygotsky's fourth stage of developmentpreschool stage of development beginnings of conceptual though children use trial and error children use problem-solving techniquescharacteristics of thinking in unordered heapschildren begin to make connections between objects, but not in a consistent mannercharacteristics of thinking in complex stagechildren are able to think in more abstract concepts and make associations cannot see two associations simultaneouslycharacteristics of thinking in concepts stagemature thinking children can manipulate a number of abstract conceptscharacteristics of thinking in true concepts stagebirth to 2 years. During this stage, the child is beginning to learn to speak, mainly imitating words and naming objects, or responding emotionally (crying) or socially (laughing)Vygotsky's primitive speech stage2 to 4 years. The child in this stage is beginning to realise that words re symbols for objects. They have a great curiosity as to what objects are called.Naive psychological stage4 to 7 years. Children often talk aloud to themselves as they perform tasks or solve problems in this stage of development. This "private speech" is the child's demonstration of their thinking.Egocentric or private speech stage8 years on. During this stage children's private speech declines and becomes much more internalized. They solve problems in their headingrowth or inner speech stagethese theorists developed categories of playJean Piaget and Sara SmilanskyIn this type of play, an infant up to two years of age will use various senses and motor skills to explore objects and their environmentsensory motor playin this type of play, symbols are much more evident. Children can pretend that one object is another, the cubby house becomes rocket. This type of ply is usually seen during Piaget's preoperational stagesymbolic playin this stage, children are unable to follow rules of games ,changing their understanding of the purpose of rules as they get older. children in the concrete operations stage are usually also in this play stagegames with rulesthis theorist developed three stages of play based off of piaget'sSara Smilanskythis stage of play occurs in the first two years of life. infants explore objects using their body (sucking and touching) and progress to other physical activities such as throwingfunctional playthis stage of play occurs when children begin to manipulate materials to create objects and patterns. Might not be representational at first but are the first attempt at working with materials to produce an effectconstructive playin this stage of play, children imitate the world around them through their role play. This leads to cooperative dramatic play around agreed-upon themesdramatic play