95 terms

ISYS 363

Laudon 5, 6, 11, 7, 8 Motiwalla 2, 3
Collection of relates files containing records on people places or things
Generalized category representing person place thing on which we store and maintain information
Specific characteristics of each entity
Regional database
Organize data into 2D tables (relations) with columns and rows
store data representing an attribute
Key field
uniquely identifies each record
Primary Key
One field in each table, cannot be duplicated, provides unique identifier for all information in any row
Entity-relationship diagram
Used to clarify table relationships in relational database
Process of streamlining complex gorups of data to: mmimize redundant data elements, minimize awkward many-to- many relationships, and increase stability and flexiblity
Referential integrity rules
Used by relationsal databases to ensure that relationships between couples tables remain constant
Specific type of software for creating, storing, organizing, and accessing data from a database
Ex. Microsoft Access, DB2, Oracle
Logical View
how end uses view data
Physical view
how data are actually structured and organized
Data definition capabilities
Specify structure of content of database
Data dictionary
Automated or manual file storing definitions of data elements and their characteristics
Object oriented DBMS
Stores data and procedures that act on those data as objects to be retireved and shared
Data warehouse
Database that stores current and historical data that may be of interest to decision makers
subset of data warehouses that is highly focused and isolated for a specific population of users
Business intelligence
tools for consolidating analyzing and providing access to large amounts of data to improve decision making
Online Analytically Processing --
Supports multidimensional data analysis enabling users to view the same data in different ways using multiple dimensions
Data mining
Finds hidden patterns and relationships in large database and infers rules from them to predict future behavior
Use of data mining
analyzing patterns in customer data for one-to-one marketing campaigns or for identifying profitable customers
Telephone networks and computer networks converging into single digital network using internet standards
More than 60% US internet users have broadband
Broadband Wireless
Voice and data communication aas well as internet access are increasingly taking place over broadband wireless platforms
Device used to route packets of data through different networks, ensuring that data sent gets to the correct address
Components can Include
100s of Local Area networks(LANs) linked to firmwide corporate network, Various powerful servers
The internet
is the largest implementation of Client'server computing
Packet Switching
Method of slicing digital messages into packets, sending packets along different communication paths as they become available
rules that govern transmission of information between two points
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol- Common worldwide standard that is basis for internet
Four Layers, TCP/IP
Application layer
Network Interface
Modem network
Translates digital signals into analog form
Campus area networks
Peer to peer
Physical Transmission media
Twisted wire (modems)
Coaxial Cable
Fiber optics and optical networks
Wireless transmission media and devices
Transmission speed
hypertext Markup Language
Formats documents for display on web
Hypertext transfer protocol
Communications standard used for transferring web pages
Uniform Resource Locators
Addresses of Web pages
Web servers
Software for locating and managing Web pages
Web 2.0
second generation interactive internet based services enabling people to collaborate share info and create new services online
(Really Simple Syndication)
syndicates web content so aggregator software can pull content for use in another setting or viewing later`
Use exisiting network infrastructure with internet connectivity standards software developed for the web
Allow authorized vendors and customers access to an internal intranet
Links up to 8 devices, low power, radiobased
Radio frequency identification
Use tiny tags with embedded microchips containing data about an item and location
Four steps to building ISYS
1.define problem
2.develop solutions
3.chooose solution
4.implement solution
Four step process to Prototype
1.Identify basic requirements
2.develop prototype
3.use prototype
4.revise prototype
Rapid application development
Creating workable systems in a very short period of time
Joint application design
End users and ISYS specialists working together on design
Computer Aided Software Engineering Provides software tools to automate the previously described methodologies
Policies, procedures, and technical measures used to prevent unauthorized access alteration theft or physical damage to information systems
Methods, policies, and organizational procedures that safety of organization's assets.
Hardware Problems
Breakdowns, configuration errors, damage fro improper use or crime
Software Problems
Programming errors, installation errors, unauthorized changes
Wireless Security Challenges
Radio frequency bands easy to scan, SSIDs, Wardriving, WEP
Rogue software program that attaches itself to other software programs or data files in order to be executed
Independent computer programs that copy themselves form one computer to other computers over a network
Trojan horses
Software program that appears to be benign but then does something other than expected
Small programs install themselves surreptitously on computers to monitor use web surfing activity and serve up advertising
key loggers
record every kestroke on computer to steal serial numbers, passwors, launch internet attacks
Misrepresenting oneself by using fake email addresses/website or masquerading as someone else
Eavesdropping program that monitors information traveling over network
DoS attacks
Denial of service attacks
--Flooding server with thousands of false requests to crash the netwrok
DDoS attacks
Distributed denial of service attacks
--Use of numeros computers to launch a Dos
Redirects users to a bogus webpage even when individual types correct web page address into the browser
vendors release small pieces of software to repair flaws
Application Controls
specific controls unique to each computerized application such as payroll or order processing
Authorization management systems
establish where and when a user is permitted to access certain parts of a web site or corporate database
Combination of hardware and software that precents unauthorized users from accessing private networks
WEP security can be improved by:
Activating it, assigning unique name to network's SSID, Using it with a VPN technology
Transforming text or data into cipher text that cannot be read by unintended recipents
Two methods of encryption
Symmetric= sender and reciever use single shared key
Public key encryption= uses public and private keys, sender encrypts message with recipient's public key, then recipient dycrypts
Suite of integrated software modules and a common central database
Just in time strategy
Components arrive as they are needed
Safety stock
buffer for lack of flxibility in supply chain
Bullwhip effect
information about product demand gets distorted as it passes from one entity to next across supply chain
To improve coordination among internal supply chain processes
to coordinate supply chain processes shared with their business partners
Pushed based model (build to stock)
Supply Chain Management systems
Schedules absed on best guesses of demand
Pul BAsed Model (demand-Driven)
Supply Chain Management systems
Customer orders trugger events in supply chian
Sequential Supply Chains
Supply Chain Management systems
Information and materials flow sequentially from company to company
Concurrent Supply Chains
Supply Chain Management systems
Information flows in many directions simulatneously among members of a supply chain network
Business value of supply chain Management
Match supply to inventory
reduce inventory levels
Improve delivery service
speed product time to market
Use assets more effectively
CRM systems
Customer relationship management systems
Capture and integrate customers data from all over the organization, Consolidate and analyxe customer data
--Also Partner(PRM) and Employee (ERM)
Operational CRM
Customer facing applications usch as sales force automation call center and customer service support and marketing automation
Analytical CRM
Analyzes customer data output from operational CRM applications
Churn Rate
Number of customers who stop using or purchasing products or services form a company
Service plaatform
integrates multiple applications to deliver a seamless experience for all parties
compartmentalized operating units isolated from their environment
horizontal Silos
(POSDCORB) (Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, Coordinating, Reporting, and Budgeting)
Resource Categorization _Functional Model
Step 1:
Insitiuting IT support for an integrated systems environment is necessary to avoid support and maintenance problems
Compliance and standards _Functional Model
Step 2:
Develop a single sign on policy because all employees and external partners will need access to an integrated system from anywhere anytime
Legacy Systems support _Functional Model
Step 3:
Develop a policy in support of older legacy applications
Middleware tools _Functional Model
Step 4:
essential for integration in the short term if existing applications must be used by the organization
Vertical Silos
divide roles in hierarchial layers from strategic planning to management control and operation control
(Strategic Management, Tactical Management, Functional Operations)