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An amendment to the Constitution, adopted in 1804, that specifies the separate election of the president and vice president by the electoral college
A written declaration that a president may make when signing a bill into law. Usually, such statements point out sections of the law that the president deems unconstitutional
A collective term for the body of employees working for the government. Generally, civil service is understood to apply to all those who gain government employment through a merit system
The authority vested in the president to fill a government office or position. Positions filled by presidential appointment include those in the executive branch and the federal judiciary, commissioned officers in the armed forces, and members of the independent regulatory commissions
A release from the punishment for or legal consequences of a crime; a pardon can be granted by the president before or after a conviction
Commander in Chief
The role of the president as supreme commander of the military forces of the United States and of the state National Guard units when they are called into federal service
War Powers Resolution
A law passed in 1973 spelling out the conditions under which the president can commit troops without congressional approval
Advice and Consent
Terms in the Constitution describing the U.S. Senate's power to review and approve treaties and presidential appointments
The role of the president in recognizing foreign governments, making treaties, and effecting executive agreements
An international agreement made by the president, without senatorial ratification, with the head of a foreign state
State of the Union Message
An annual message to Congress in which the president proposes a legislative program. The message is addressed not only to congress but also to the American people and to the world
A special veto exercised by the chief executive after a legislative body has adjourned. Bills not signed by the chief executive die after a specified period of time. If Congress wishes to reconsider such a bill, it must be reintroduced in the following session of Congress
The power of an executive to veto individual lines or items within a piece of legislation without vetoing the entire bill
A power of the president that is expressly written into the Constitution or into statutory law
A power of the president derived from the statements in the Constitution that "the executive Power shall be vested in a President" and that the president should "take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed"; defined through practice rather than through law
The practice of rewarding faithful party workers and followers with government employment and contracts
A rule or regulation issued by the president that has the effect of law. Executive orders can implement and give administrative effect to provisions in the Constitution, to treaties, and to statues
A publication of the U.S. government that prints executive orders, rules, and regulations
The right of executive officials to withhold information from or to refuse to appear before a legislative committee
An action by the House of representatives to accuse the president, vice president, or other civil officers of the U.S. of committing "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors"
An advisory group selected by the president to aid in making decisions. the cabinet includes the heads of fifteen executive departments and other named by the president
Executive Office of the President (EOP)
An organization established by President FDR to assist the president in carrying out major duties
White House Office
The personal office of the president, which tends to presidential political needs and manages the media
Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
A division of the Executive Office of the President. The OMB assists the president in preparing the annual budget, clearing and coordinating departmental agency budgets, and supervising the administration of the federal budget
National Security Council (NSC)
An agency in the Executive Office of the President that advises the president on national security
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