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covers lectures on sleep and arousal
Terms in this set (34)
Controls waking arousal of cortex
Endogenous amphetamine released in bursts to alert
Responds to novelty or threat
Released to arouse cortex
May show deficits in Alzheimer's patients
Released to de-arouse cortex
Arousal network moving up through brainstem
"Dark Blue Place" in pons
Caffeine is a stimulant that blocks receptors for Adenosine , allowing continued cortical arousal via the release of ACh and the inhibition of the opponent system releasing GABA .
EEG while awake/active
EEG while awake/relaxed
EEG during Sleep I & 2
>50% during Stage 4
< 4 Hz
<50% during Stage 3
The stage of sleep associated with dreams
Spindles and K complexes are intermittent bursts of high frequency or voltage observed during this stage of sleep
Slow wave sleep
characterized by its highly synchronized activity.
also known as paradoxical sleep due to its contradictory nature (i.e., active, desynchronized brain, but paralyzed body).
shows the most de-synchronized pattern of activity.
Slow Wave Sleep
shows the lowest rate of change in mean EEG per unit time.
The typical duration of one sleep cycle through Stages 1, 2, 3, 4, 3, 2, REM sleep is _____ minutes.
The sequence of activation that initiates dream sleep goes from the pons to the lateral geniculate and then on to the occipital cortex .
ACh is the excitatory neurotransmitter that is released to desynchronize the brain during this wave of activation.
Unlike during waking arousal, stimulation enters the rear of the cortex during this phase of sleep.
During this phase, there is also an active suppression by the brainstem of motor activity, called atonia .
Shift from REM to Slow Wave Sleep
Signals Basal Forebrain to inhibit cortex
Initiates dream sleep
Responds to changes in brain termperature
Arouses cortex during dreams
Released when brain cools
Burst shuts off REM
A) The Supra-Chiasmic Nucleus shows a pattern of activity on a 24 +/1 hour cycle. True
B) The Pineal Gland hangs right below the Hypothalamus. False
C) The sleep aid, melatonin, stimulates activity in the Pineal Gland. True
D) Melanopsin is the neurotransmitter released along the Retino-Hypothalamic Path. False
E) Ancient ganglion cells in the retina act as receptors that register changes in ambient light levels. True
F) The SCN releases Serotonin onto the Pineal Gland. False
G) The Pineal Gland increases its melatonin production as the light fades. True
H) Receptor axons synapse in the SCN which then signals the Pineal Gland. True
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